Water Profile Help

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Active Member
Feb 17, 2013
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Hey guys, here is my current water supply profile and I have a few questions:

Calcium: 4.20 ppm
Sulfate: 9.00 ppm
Magnesium: 0.46 ppm
Chloride: 9.00 ppm
Sodium: 13.10 ppm
Alkalinity (as CaCO3): 19
Bicarbonate: 23.20 ppm
PH: 7.40

Using the water with this water profile, I am wondering if there is anything I should do to the water? I mainly brew more hoppy style beers and continue to strive for getting more hop flavours into my beers, but have not played around with water chemistry much as I'm very uneducated in it. Yes, I should become more educated in it, but I honestly don't have a lot of extra time, barely have enough time to make beer lately. I really just looking to see if there are any simple things I can do to my water? I do often add Gypum (1-2 teaspooons) to my water prior to starting the brewing process, other times I don't do anything to the water. And honestly have not really noticed a difference in my beers with or without it. My latest beer has some off flavors in it, which most likely aren't due to the water but more my fermenting temps and letting my ingredients sit around for a month prior to using. Just trying to see what I can do.

Thanks in advance for any help you can provide!

Happy Brewing!


Well-Known Member
Jan 8, 2021
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The time you need to invest to educate yourself in this matter is 30-60 minutes.
Modification of water depends from the grains you are using. You cannot "improve" your water by arbitrary addition such as Gypsum.

Your water, as is, is very thin in ions. This is a very good starting point because you can easily modify it to suit any stile you want. As is, it is probably perfect for Pils. That also means that, as is, it is quite inadequate for a Stout. So, the modification depends on the beer.

Simple, uncomplicated, "for dummies" sources to learn are:
John Palmer spreadsheet: the first sheet has the instructions. That's enough. Search the internet with "Palmer Water adj xls"

Bru'n Water spreadsheet. The author, Martin Bruungard, is a member of this forum as @mabrungard . You find all links under his signature. He maintains a separate web page about water chemistry. A bit more involved than Palmer's explanation but still chewable for the chemically-challenged such as myself.
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Mar 24, 2013
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Simple, uncomplicated, "for dummies" sources to learn are:
While I was rather disappointed by the book "Simple Homebrewing" by Denny Conn and Drew Beechum, the chapter on Water Chemistry is one of the best "Intro to Water Chem" type reads I have found. I am pretty sure they provide a discussion on one of their podcasts that covers the topic in a similar manner.

Some of the stuff with Palmer as the author gets wrapped up in adjusting pH with Calcium and calculating Residual Alkalinity (though the "How to Brew" sections on adjusting water for taste and the impact of specific minerals/ions are quite good). The "Water Knowledge" in Bru'n Water is also a great source of info for free, but it is hard to digest (at least for me).


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Lifetime Supporter
Feb 22, 2011
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That water profile is lightly mineralized and should be a great starting point for many styles. But even that water isn’t going to be ideal for most styles. If simple adjustments are your goal, read the Water Primer thread in the Brewing Science forum here. That’s good enough to produce decent beer. If you want to learn more and improve your chances of creating great beer, then a bit more study and action will help.

PS: Denny and Drew’s chapter on water was intended to convey the importance of paying attention to your water while keeping it as simple as possible. It’s a good introduction. Denny and Drew did have me edit the chapter before publication.