sulfite free wine

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JWHooper

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My wife is allergic to sulfites, so I am looking for alternatives.

One alternative is to buy $10 a bottle suflite free wine from Whole Foods. I don't like it though.

From what I have learned, sulfites are introduced to sterilize the must from wild strains of yeast, and to stabilize wine for aging. I have never heard of any substitute, except for one guy who said to freeze the wine for a couple of days to stop the yeast.

I'm a wine lightweight, so it probably doesn't matter what I drink. I like White Zinfindel about the best, which is probably the wine equivalent of Kool-Aid. Then again I didn't like beer much when I was 12 years old, but over many decades I have become quite fond of it.

So, I suppose I'm asking if there are alternatives to sulfite preservation, or wines that just don't require it. Doesn't have to be grape wine.

Thanks.

JW
 

effigyoffaith

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The way i understand the sulfites are not strictly necessary but the do help prevent contamination, spoilage, and oxidation. You should be able to make wine without them, but you might have to accept that every once in a while some of your wine would spoil.
Since light whites are often drunk younger they might be better to make no-sulfite, but then they oxidize easier.
If you haven't made any wine before I'd start with something like Edwort's Apfelwien.
 
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JWHooper

JWHooper

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I read somewhere that wine deteriorates rather quickly and doesn't age well without sulfites. At least that is what I read. The person could have been a wine snob or something. I don't think I could tell the difference between good wine and bad.
 

Pogo

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I'll bet that you would be able to tell wine, any kind of wine, even poor wine, from vinegar couldn't you?

Think about it, if you were producing wines commercially, 1,000's of cases at a time, once you have given up control over how they were to be handled and stored, would you want to unnecessarily risk having your name/label smeared by randomly having even one bottle of your wine deliver up vinegar a year or three down the road?

I'm thinking that it is all about the vinegar.

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Try Mead. NO sorbate necessary. :D


I read somewhere that wine deteriorates rather quickly and doesn't age well without sulfites.
This is only partially true. Great wine was made for a LONG time before we learned how to sulfite wine. I'd think that you have to be VERRRRRY careful when handling said wine, and perhaps even purge all vessels that do not host fermentation with Co2...including bottles...but it surely can be done.

Yooper?
 

Nurmey

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Just as an FYI, a quote from an organic wine site which I found interesting:

The public often equates organic wines with "sulfite-free" wines. This is inaccurate. Let us apologize for the confusion and try to clear it up for you.

AN ORGANIC WINE IS FIRST AND FOREMOST A WINE MADE OUT OF GRAPES THAT WERE GROWN ORGANICALLY.
Organic wines are produced using organically grown grapes. No pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, chemical fertilizers, or synthetic chemicals of any kind are allowed on the vines or in the soil. Strict rules govern the winemaking process and storage conditions of all imported and domestic wines that acquire certification. Moreover, organic winemakers often avoid many of the chemical substances used to stabilize conventional wines.

THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A SULFITE-FREE WINE.
Totally sulfite-free wines are an accident of nature; but wines low in sulfites or free of added sulfites do exist. Let us explain. Sulfites are a natural byproduct of the fermentation process. Fermenting yeasts present on all grape skins generate naturally occurring sulfites in amounts ranging from 6 to 40 parts per million (ppm.).

According to Professor Roger Boulton, Ph.D., University of California at Davis, Department of Viticulture and Enology, even if no sulfur dioxide is added to wine, fermenting yeasts will produce SO2 from the naturally occurring inorganic sulfates in all grape juices. Thus, says Boulton, it is impossible for any wine to be completely free of sulfur dioxide.

WHAT ABOUT ADDED SULFITES?
Although technical advances permit the industry to add much less sulfur, most serious winemakers and enology professors concur that to make a consistently stable wine, some sulfites must be added to those naturally present. A handful of winemakers go beyond that; they use no added sulfites at all. However, sulfite agents, when properly handled, are not intrinsically toxic to humans or to the environment, and many feel they are essential in order to prevent oxidation or bacterial spoilage. Therefore, American and European organic winemaking standards allow for the addition of strictly regulated amounts of SO2.

In the U.S., wines can contain up to 350ppm of sulfites. Organic winemaking standards, as adopted recently (12/2000) by the USDA, limit the use of sulfites to 100ppm in all finished products. However, most organic wines contain less than 40ppm of sulfites.

SULFITES IN ORGANIC WINE COMPANY WINES
Our line of wines is regularly analyzed by the local BATF laboratory. On average the reds have about 40ppm of total sulfites (20 to 60) while the whites, along with the sparkling, show up around 70 ppm (50 to 90). Some show none at all (Cartagene or certain vintages of Guy Chaumont wines). This does not represent a criterion by itself for us. We know that all our producers are striving to use the smallest possible amount of sulfites given their respective situation.


WHY DO WINEMAKERS ADD SULFITES TO WINE?
Sulfur has been used as a preservative in winemaking for quite some time. To prevent wine spoilage, European winemakers pioneered the use of sulfur dioxide (SO2) two hundred years ago. Unfortunately, freshly pressed grape juice has a tendency to spoil due to contamination from bacteria and wild yeasts present on the grape skins. Not only does sulfur dioxide inhibit the growth of molds and bacteria, but it also stops oxidation (browning) and preserves the wine's natural flavor.

SULFITES IN OTHER PRODUCTS.
According to Mitchell Zeller of the Washington, D.C. based Center for Science in the Public Interest, sulfites exist in a wide variety of products at levels that are comparable to, or in excess of the concentration that is found in wine. The presence of sulfites ranging from 6 to 6000 ppm is found in products such as fruit juices, dried fruits, fruit concentrates, syrups, sugar, jams, gelatins, cake toppings, baked goods, pizza dough, frozen and dehydrated potatoes, processed vegetables, cheeses, as well as in many prescription drugs.

"CONTAINS SULFITES"
In the United States, the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) in conjunction with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates and limits the use of sulfites in wine and has done so for many decades. On January 1, 1987, a Federal regulation was passed requiring that as of January 1, 1988, all imported and domestic wines, beers and spirits exceeding 10 parts per million of sulfites bear the mention "Contains Sulfites" on their label. Wines that contain less than 10 ppm sulfites are not required to put "Contains Sulfites" on their labels; however, this does not mean the wine is "sulfite-free" or contains no sulfites. As established earlier, all wines naturally contain some sulfites.

WHO IS AT RISK?
The FDA says only about .4% of the population, or about a million people, is considered highly allergic to sulfites. According to Dr. Vincent Marinkovich, an allergist and clinical immunologist who has performed extensive research on SO 2, sulfites pose no danger to about 99.75% of the population; the highest risk group are asthmatics (about 5% of the population) and only about 5% of this group is allergic to sulfites.

Many people, however, have little tolerance for sulfites. They are considered sulfite-sensitive. Even for moderate wine drinkers, the average level of sulfites found in many commercial wines can cause heartburns or other side effects. Unpleasant reactions include burning sensations, hives, cramps, and flushing of the skin. For them, organic wines are an especially good choice since they contain minimal amounts of sulfites that will in most cases lie below their threshold level.

http://www.ecowine.com/sulfites.htm
 
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JWHooper

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Yeah, I knew all that: it is the ADDED sulfites. Champagne seems even worse than wine. Every anniversary she was getting sick, but sometimes she was sicker than other years. However, if drinking champagne/wine occasionally made you very sick, how fun would it be to drink?

It didn't take that many years to finally figure it out. Sulfite free wine: not a problem, ever. Drinking other liquor, not a problem. Wine coolers with sulfites: sick. Hard lemonade without sulfites: no problem.

I'll have a batch of wine ready soon, and I bet it won't bother her.
 

SigsNanoBrew

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Wines were made without added sulfites for 8000 years. It's a consequence of mass commerce that they are added, primarily to insure consistency, shelf life and avoid off tastes.

There is a company called Frey Organic Wines that makes a line of organic wines with no added sulfites. Their wines are reasonably priced too. If you just want to buy some:
www.freywine.com

I'm interested in doing this, unfortunately there are not many resources for making a wine without added sulfites. However the process is identical, just with some extra precautions.

You should pay very special attention to equipment sanitation. Use Star San to sanitize all your equipment and flush all carboys, bottles, and storage tanks with CO2 or other inert gas to minimize exposure to ambient air. Alcohol is a natural preservative post fermentation.

Ironically, according to Paul Frey, the over-use of sanitation such as bleach, and over-use of preservatives killing everything else in the must can actually clear the way for a one-microbe spoilage potential to take over. In the old days, all wine and cider was simply fermented naturally using whatever yeast was present on the fruit and in the air. Some hard cider makers still insist that this is the proper way to make it.

Wine and beer used to be a living food, like yogurt, pickles and sauerkraut. Unfortunately, commercial production has killed all these foods, with yogurt being the exception. As home brewers, we can breathe life back into our beers by keeping the microbes alive in the final product. I bottle or keg condition all my beer with yeast.

Here are some pages I found on the topic of organic wine making. Good luck and if you do make some please post back with your results.

http://winemakersacademy.com/making-sulfite-free-wine/
http://postmodernwinemaking.com/wine-without-sulfites-roman-style
 

Bluespark

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I don't use sulfites, and have no problems. I either ferment it dry or max out the yeast for a sweet wine.
 

DoctorCAD

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Sulfites have nothing to do with dryness or back sweetening. Also, the 8000 year old wine story, (interesting, but the oldest wine ever discovered was 6000 years old), people died way younger than us. Mostly because of unsanitary foodstuffs.

Just make your wine and dont add any extra sulfites. It wont last as long, any you might get a few bottles that will oxidize, but you are talking abour making or not making your wife sick...its worth having to throw a few bottles out for that.
 

SigsNanoBrew

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6000, 8000 whatever. The point is people made wine for a very very long time without adding sulfites. And their shorter lifespan had nothing to do with whether or not they put preservatives in wine. Our longer average lifespan is mainly because of medical advances, particularly hygienics and antibiotics, plus the worldwide agriculture boom (people often starved when their crops failed back then). Actually if people survived the high childhood mortality rates, they could and often did live to be quite old.

"Sulfites have nothing to do with dryness or back sweetening."

Sulfites are commonly introduced to arrest fermentation at a desired time. If you arrest the fermentation prior to its completion, you will have a less dry wine than if you allow the fermentation to complete to dryness.

That's why the sweeter dessert wines often contain higher levels of sulfites than dry wines.
 

DoctorCAD

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Sulfites will not arrest fermentation. Sulfites IN CONJUNCTION WITH SORBATES can slow or stop a virtually done wine. Stopping an active fermentation is all but impossible.
 

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If I sulfite, it's only to kill bacteria, mold, fungus on fruit or in the juice before pitching the yeast.

You can accomplish the same thing by pasteurization, but you may have to deal with pectic haze.

I never sulfite after fermentation to stabilize. If I want a sweet wine, i use enough fermentables to exceed the yeast's alcohol toxicity level.

(I have sulfite sensitive asthma and my wife gets sulfite migraines.)
 

novalou

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JWHooper said:
I read somewhere that wine deteriorates rather quickly and doesn't age well without sulfites. At least that is what I read. The person could have been a wine snob or something. I don't think I could tell the difference between good wine and bad.
I know someone that makes sulfite free red wines. They need to be consumed before the one year mark. After that they oxidize and head downhill quickly.
 

Yooper

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I know someone that makes sulfite free red wines. They need to be consumed before the one year mark. After that they oxidize and head downhill quickly.
They don't make "sulfite free" wines, as there is no such thing. Fermentation creates sulfites.

They MAY make "no added sulfite" wine. That would mean that it wouldn't last very long.
 

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How could wine oxidize if no oxygen is introduced during or after bottling? Is there oxygen in the wine even if bottled in a C02 rich environment?
 

novalou

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Yooper said:
They don't make "sulfite free" wines, as there is no such thing. Fermentation creates sulfites. They MAY make "no added sulfite" wine. That would mean that it wouldn't last very long.
Right. I thought about that after my post. To clarify "no additional sulfur added".
 

novalou

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Descender said:
How could wine oxidize if no oxygen is introduced during or after bottling? Is there oxygen in the wine even if bottled in a C02 rich environment?
Most of us do not have the means to rack or bottle in a CO2 rich environment, so we end up with some air being absorbed by the wine.
 

SigsNanoBrew

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Sulfites will not arrest fermentation. Sulfites IN CONJUNCTION WITH SORBATES can slow or stop a virtually done wine. Stopping an active fermentation is all but impossible.
"Sulfites are commonly introduced to arrest fermentation at a desired time, [and may also be added to wine as preservatives to prevent spoilage and oxidation at several stages of the winemaking]."

numerous sources:
http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/react/74
http://www.ymdb.ca/compounds/YMDB00114
http://pathman.smpdb.ca/pathways/SMP00041/pathway
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfite
 

SigsNanoBrew

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They don't make "sulfite free" wines, as there is no such thing. Fermentation creates sulfites.

They MAY make "no added sulfite" wine. That would mean that it wouldn't last very long.
Neither of these statements is necessarily true. I have purchased wines certified with no detectable sulfite levels.

The Coturri Winery in Sonoma adds no sulfites to any of their wines and in addition their 2007 Cabernet Sauvignon, 2005 Côte des Cailloux, 2005 Chateau d' O, 2003 Merlot, and 2006 Pinot Noir all have a sulfite level of 0 ppm or "not detected" as analyzed by the U.S. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TBB). So yes, there IS such a thing as "sulfite free" wines.

They even sell a no-sulfite-added eleven year old 2002 Cabernet Sauvignon which they recommend to "put it in the deepest darkest part of your cellar. " So, not only DO they make "no added sulfite" wines, that clearly does not have to mean that it "wouldn't last very long".

You can check their available vintages and the certified TBB analyses here:
http://www.coturriwinery.com/order.html
 

Descender

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Most of us do not have the means to rack or bottle in a CO2 rich environment, so we end up with some air being absorbed by the wine.
I work at a restaurant that has soda machines. I take my bottling jug and open 2 of the caps. Then I put it up to a spare tank and gas the hell out of it and quickly cap it. I'm ok on avoiding oxidation right?
 

Yooper

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"Sulfites are commonly introduced to arrest fermentation at a desired time, [and may also be added to wine as preservatives to prevent spoilage and oxidation at several stages of the winemaking]."

numerous sources:
http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/react/74
http://www.ymdb.ca/compounds/YMDB00114
http://pathman.smpdb.ca/pathways/SMP00041/pathway
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfite
Those are not authoritative sources showing that sulfites indeed arrest fermentation- they claim that they may be used that way but there is no evidence that it works. (I didn't look at wikipedia, because it's wikipedia but I did glance at the others.) Ask a microbiologist or winemaker. Those would be authorities.

Neither of these statements is necessarily true. I have purchased wines certified with no detectable sulfite levels.

The Coturri Winery in Sonoma adds no sulfites to any of their wines and in addition their 2007 Cabernet Sauvignon, 2005 Côte des Cailloux, 2005 Chateau d' O, 2003 Merlot, and 2006 Pinot Noir all have a sulfite level of 0 ppm or "not detected" as analyzed by the U.S. Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TBB). So yes, there IS such a thing as "sulfite free" wines.

They even sell a no-sulfite-added eleven year old 2002 Cabernet Sauvignon which they recommend to "put it in the deepest darkest part of your cellar. " So, not only DO they make "no added sulfite" wines, that clearly does not have to mean that it "wouldn't last very long".

You can check their available vintages and the certified TBB analyses here:
http://www.coturriwinery.com/order.html
It's true that if a wine has less than 20 ppm they can say "no sulfites", but if there isn't any detected in these then that is possible. It means that the content is low enough that it's not detectable, but not that there is 0. Since fermentation creates sulfites naturally, perhaps they dissipate before testing, but that would be rare. Even "sulfite free wines" generally have 10-20 ppm.
 

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I have a friend that used to work at a large commercial winery. He said they would gas the huge tanks with S02 to kill everything before bottling...
 

SigsNanoBrew

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Those are not authoritative sources showing that sulfites indeed arrest fermentation- they claim that they may be used that way but there is no evidence that it works. (I didn't look at wikipedia, because it's wikipedia but I did glance at the others.) Ask a microbiologist or winemaker. Those would be authorities.



It's true that if a wine has less than 20 ppm they can say "no sulfites", but if there isn't any detected in these then that is possible. It means that the content is low enough that it's not detectable, but not that there is 0. Since fermentation creates sulfites naturally, perhaps they dissipate before testing, but that would be rare. Even "sulfite free wines" generally have 10-20 ppm.
If the level of sulfites is "not detectable" i.e, less than 1 ppm then for all practical purposes of you or I or anyone else consuming it then it is "sulfite free", since less than 10 ppm of sulfites or "very low sulfite levels", generally do not pose a risk, even for people with sulfite allergy. The fact that Coturri and other organic wineries sell wines certified to have undetectable levels of sulfites is a complete refutation of your previous statement that "there is no such thing" as sulfite-free wine.

As for the use of sulfites to arrest fermentation, I presented four sources in support of that, while you presented zero, and I have a degree in microbiology. Here, definitive evidence in the form of a scientific paper which unequivocally states: "After a short period of tolerance, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irreversibly damaged by low concentrations of sulfite".

"The effect of sulfite on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Schimz KL.
Abstract

After a short period of tolerance, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irreversibly damaged by low concentrations of sulfite. The length of the period of tolerance and the rate of the damaging effect depended on the concentration on sulfite, pH-value, temperature, the physiological state of the cells, and incubation time. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis did not alter the deleterious effect of sulfite on living cells. Furthermore, cell damage leading to inhibition of colony formation occurred under aerobic as well as under anaerobic conditions. Prior to cell inactivation sulfite induced the formation of respiratory deficient cells. The active agent was shown to be SO2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6992733
 

Yooper

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If the level of sulfites is "not detectable" i.e, less than 1 ppm then for all practical purposes of you or I or anyone else consuming it then it is "sulfite free", since less than 10 ppm of sulfites or "very low sulfite levels", generally do not pose a risk, even for people with sulfite allergy. The fact that Coturri and other organic wineries sell wines certified to have undetectable levels of sulfites is a complete refutation of your previous statement that "there is no such thing" as sulfite-free wine.

As for the use of sulfites to arrest fermentation, I presented four sources in support of that, while you presented zero, and I have a degree in microbiology. Here, definitive evidence in the form of a scientific paper which unequivocally states: "After a short period of tolerance, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irreversibly damaged by low concentrations of sulfite".

"The effect of sulfite on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Schimz KL.
Abstract

After a short period of tolerance, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irreversibly damaged by low concentrations of sulfite. The length of the period of tolerance and the rate of the damaging effect depended on the concentration on sulfite, pH-value, temperature, the physiological state of the cells, and incubation time. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis did not alter the deleterious effect of sulfite on living cells. Furthermore, cell damage leading to inhibition of colony formation occurred under aerobic as well as under anaerobic conditions. Prior to cell inactivation sulfite induced the formation of respiratory deficient cells. The active agent was shown to be SO2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6992733
That's perfect- thanks for that!

I was aware of this, but most home winemakers do not cold stabilize, check pH, etc. S02 generally only "works" if the wine has an inhospitable environment (low pH, cold temperatures, yeast population, etc) so it does not tend to work the way winemakers wish. Many many winemakers have had bottle bombs and corks popping out because of these variables. In order for most home winemakers to add enough sulfite to actually kill the yeast, they would have to use a huge enough dose to make the wine undrinkable. I still stand by that, and see it all the time. I've been doing this a LONG time. Many winemakers rush to bottle and aren't aware that the yeast are still quite healthy and undamaged by S02 at that point.
 

Yooper

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Here's something interesting that I knew, but sort of forgot I guess. :drunk:

I was looking up characteristics of an unfamiliar fructophilic wine strain I have (for a wine wine I have ready to pitch today), and they list all the pertinent information like this:
.
■ Technical characteristics
- Optimum temperature range: 15 to 30 °C
(59 to 86 °F)
- Very high alcohol tolerance: 17 %.
- Resistance to free SO2: 50 mg/l.
■ Metabolic characteristics
- Average glycerol production, 5 to 7 g/l.
- Average volatile acidity production, generally less
than 0.3 g/l.
- High acetaldehyde production, 60 mg/l.
- Low H2S production.
- Low SO2 production, less than 10 mg/l.



I knew that some yeast strains are far more resistant to s02 than others, and that some also produce more s02 than others. This strain (Fermichamp) shows low S02 production and tolerance, compared to other strains.

To minimize sulfites in a finished wine for people who are not tolerant of them, using a yeast strain that produces low to very low amounts and giving it time to dissipate would work well. That said, I doubt they'd get to 0 or even too low to test for, but it could definitely minimize them.

Some strains are very tolerant of sulfites, even to 100-150 ppm, and produce far more during fermentation than this strain I looked up today.
 

WilliamSlayer

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If the level of sulfites is "not detectable" i.e, less than 1 ppm then for all practical purposes of you or I or anyone else consuming it then it is "sulfite free", since less than 10 ppm of sulfites or "very low sulfite levels", generally do not pose a risk, even for people with sulfite allergy. The fact that Coturri and other organic wineries sell wines certified to have undetectable levels of sulfites is a complete refutation of your previous statement that "there is no such thing" as sulfite-free wine.

As for the use of sulfites to arrest fermentation, I presented four sources in support of that, while you presented zero, and I have a degree in microbiology. Here, definitive evidence in the form of a scientific paper which unequivocally states: "After a short period of tolerance, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irreversibly damaged by low concentrations of sulfite".

"The effect of sulfite on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Schimz KL.
Abstract

After a short period of tolerance, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irreversibly damaged by low concentrations of sulfite. The length of the period of tolerance and the rate of the damaging effect depended on the concentration on sulfite, pH-value, temperature, the physiological state of the cells, and incubation time.

WHAT ISNT STATED HERE IS THE LEVELS OF SULFITES USED. HOW MANY PPM?

NOTE ALSO THAT WHAT IS NOT STATED IS ALTHOUGH THE CELLS MAY HAVE BEEN 'DAMAGED', THEY CONTINUED TO FUNCTION/FERMENT.




Inhibitors of protein synthesis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis did not alter the deleterious effect of sulfite on living cells. Furthermore, cell damage leading to inhibition of colony formation occurred under aerobic as well as under anaerobic conditions. Prior to cell inactivation sulfite induced the formation of respiratory deficient cells. The active agent was shown to be SO2.

AGAIN, NO ONE DISPUTES THAT AT VERY HIGH LEVELS THIS HAPPENS. BUT IT DOES NOT HAPPEN AT LEVELS UNDER THE HUMAN TASTE THRESHOLD.



http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6992733
:-/

Experience of the winemakers on this forum needs to be respected.
 

Yooper

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"The effect of sulfite on the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Schimz KL.
Abstract

After a short period of tolerance, living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were irreversibly damaged by low concentrations of sulfite. The length of the period of tolerance and the rate of the damaging effect depended on the concentration on sulfite, pH-value, temperature, the physiological state of the cells, and incubation time. Inhibitors of protein synthesis and mitochondrial ATP synthesis did not alter the deleterious effect of sulfite on living cells. Furthermore, cell damage leading to inhibition of colony formation occurred under aerobic as well as under anaerobic conditions. Prior to cell inactivation sulfite induced the formation of respiratory deficient cells. The active agent was shown to be SO2.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6992733
I bolded the information that would be helpful to re-read.

After a short period of tolerance- how long? Long enough to already have the bottles blown up? Or at least the corks blown out? Maybe.

irreversibly damaged- not immediately killed. That means that fermentation would/could easily continue until inactivation.

The length of the period of tolerance and the rate of the damaging effect depended on the concentration on sulfite, pH-value, temperature, the physiological state of the cells, and incubation time. - of course. But what concentrate? 50 ppm? 200 ppm? 100 ppm? what pH? Cold temperatures? That's of course all true. But most winemakers wouldn't use a large dose, as they'd stay under the taste threshold but we have no idea how much THIS wine today would need to prevent renewed fermentation.

While the link was indeed provided, you can see that it's not a definitive "50 ppm of sulfites will inactivate wine yeast"- as that's simply not true in most cases and definitely not in all cases.

That was my point.
 
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