Measuring carbonation

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May 19, 2021
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We all use those standard equilibrium charts to set our CO2 regulator pressures to achieve the carbonation levels we want for the style of beer we are brewing.

For me this is almost always 10-12 psi, to get to the ~2.5 volumes CO2 that I usually shoot for at the 36 degree temp at which I force carb my kegs,

But as I continue to dial in my process and learn more about what levels of carbonation make my beer taste better, I'd love to be able to measure actual level of carbonation.

Putting ballons on bottles etc seems horribly imprecise. Is it possible to use a hydrometer to measure the difference in gravity between uncarbonated (or de-gassed) and fully-carbed beer, to somehow measure carbonation level?

Or are there other approaches?