No, they wouldn't work. Mason jars work great for canning- because it works by forcing out all the air and creating a vacuum. Beer is carbonated, so any time some carbonation would be created, the air would be forced out. If it wasn't forced out, the glass would explode, since canning jars aren't made to withstand pressure.
You can use recycled beer bottles, though. Or even plastic soda bottles.
Mason jars are designed to hold vacuum, not positive pressure. So no - go pickup a couple cases of your favourite micro and get drinking! If you don't want the hassle with filling a ton of bottles, you can use 2L pop bottles as well.