Homebrew Talk - Beer, Wine, Mead, & Cider Brewing Discussion Forum

Help Support Homebrew Talk - Beer, Wine, Mead, & Cider Brewing Discussion Forum:

Generally it’s nice to brew with predictable ingredients in controlled conditions. You purchase your ingredients, follow your process, pitch your yeast, and leave your beer in a temperature stable environment. After some time the yeast consumes all the sugars and leaves behind its own flavor characters and some alcohol.
I decided that I’d carry out a little experiment to mix the process up a little. I wanted to catch some wild yeast. Yeast grows on a number of plants and also drifts through the air. In the old days people fermented things without even knowing what was causing it. Later brewer’s yeast was isolated and then carefully selected and bred to the different strains we use today. There is however no reason we cannot make use of wild yeast in our beers and see what we end up with at the end. Wild yeast tends to have a particular character and doesn’t ferment as clean as some commercial yeasts. Some beers rely on this unique character to create their particular flavor profile. In this post I describe a yeast capture I did recently. I will not describe isolating the yeast as this does require more specialized equipment, but what we’ll end up with will allow us to brew beer.

Equipment needed
You won’t need much to capture some yeast. There are two ways you can capture yeast: from the air, or from some fruit, flowers, or other piece of plant. I will cover the first one here, but generally it’ll be the same process for the latter.
So before we get started here’s what you’ll need:
  • One or two small jars with lids
  • Some muslin cloth
  • Dry malt extract
  • Small amount of hops (optional)
  • Rubber bands
  • A larger jar with an airlock in the lid

Process
First off we’re going to need to get our small jars clean and sanitized. For this I boiled them in some water for about 15 minutes with their lids and the muslin cloth.
wildyeast1.jpg


At the same time I prepared some wort with the DME aiming for a gravity of around 1.030. I used enough water to fill the two jars which was around 250ml, requiring about 20g of DME.

wildyeast2.jpg

In this case I decided to add a small amount of hops (10 IBUs) which for this batch size is around 0.75g of 8%AA hop pellets. The hops add a little bittering and also help prevent the growth of some unwanted bacteria. I figured there would be no harm in adding that much, and if it prevents bacteria growing, all the better.

wildyeast3.jpg


Once the jars were boiled I took them out (carefully) and left them to dry. Once dry I added some of the wort to each jar, placed the muslin on top and secured it with a rubber band and placed the lids back on until they completely cooled.
I decided to carry out my capture overnight in the winter, so I wasn’t too worried about the jars being a little warm, they cooled down pretty quick outside. I took the jars into my garden and placed them in two different places and removed the lids.
In the morning I replaced the lids and brought them inside. I poured both jars into a larger jar fitted with an airlock and left it at room temperature.

wildyeast5.jpg

Now it’s a matter of waiting to see if you caught something and if it’s any good. It’s highly advisable to leave the jar for at least two weeks. The reason for this is that bacteria growth will start shortly after inoculation and peak soon after. Then yeast will start to grow and displace the nasties. After a few days you should start seeing the tell tale signs of fermentation in your jar. Bubbles, some foam, but don’t expect anything like high krausen.
Once it’s fermented out (2-3) weeks it will be safe to taste. DO NOT test or taste it before this time however. The presence of mold doesn’t mean your wild yeast starter is ruined, it’s just a common part of the process. If you have a pH meter handy, you can check the pH and see if it’s dropped significantly. That would also indicate the yeast has been working as the lactic acid concentration will increase after around weeks 4-5.
When testing, use smell first. If it smells OK you should use a sanitized pipette to pull a sample from below the surface and give it a taste. If it tastes good then you’ve got yourself your own awesome pet yeast. Otherwise bin it and try again.

Alternative method
As mentioned earlier it is possible to harvest yeast from flowers, fruit, and other pieces of plants. For this follow the above process but instead of leaving the jars outside simply place some fruit, leaves, bark, or whatever takes your fancy, into the wort. After a few days you should see some fermentation signs and a sediment will start to settle. No need to crush the fruit for this. If you notice the fruit going off remove it with a sterilized implement. Ideally leave the fruit 2-4 days and remove. Then leave the wort for a further 30 days.
I’ve not tried this method yet, but it is a similar method to capture yeast as above. You will find that different fruit, vegetables, and such will offer you different yeast types, so it’s a little more controlled than capturing yeast from the air.

Results!
You should end up with a layer of yeast at the bottom of your jar that won’t look too dissimilar to what you’d see at the bottom of a starter. Here’s what mine looked like after 3 weeks, with a good yeasty layer at the bottom of the jar.

wildyeast6.jpg

It had a very distinct flavor. A little sour and a bit earthy, but not bad, and I didn’t suffer any ill effects from sampling it. Unfortunately I ended up ditching this batch because I left it too long to brew with. But I plan on doing another capture now when spring arrives and more plants are in bloom.

Cultivating and isolating
If you are happy with the taste of your small beer then you can proceed to propagate the yeast. You can do this with step up starters, increasing the volume of the wort by a factor of 10 each time. So start with a 200ml starter with a gravity of 1.030-1.040 and leave that to grow ideally on a stir plate. Then pitch that into a 1.5l starter wort of the same gravity. At this stage you should have enough cells for a brew with an OG < 1.060.
Unfortunately this involves some guess work as unless you have the required tools to count how many cells your capture has, we’re just estimating the cell count. But hey, it’s free yeast, so just try again.
You can isolate the yeast cells in your capture, but that is outside of the scope of the article. For this process you will require a few more items like petri dishes, wire loops, alcohol burners, agar etc. There are a few resources online about wrangling yeast like this though if you wish to take this route.

Summary
Using wild yeast can lead to some interesting and very different flavors in your beers. If you end up capturing a good strain, you can always keep a small starter batch in the fridge and propagate from this for brews in the future. The strain will evolve over time, as it adapts to your brewing conditions and intermingles with other strains in the air, but that goes for pretty much all yeast strains.
So go hunting and have fun. Hope you catch something great.
wildyeast4.jpg
 

ElmCityWobblyPops

Well-Known Member
Joined
Nov 6, 2015
Messages
62
Reaction score
20
Location
Fredericton
Great article. I have often wondered what I would get around here. Living in eastern Canada, with winter setting in, I am assuming I will have to wait until Spring to do anything.. I do have some sort of choke cherry tree on the property, that I have often wondered if I would get anything off of as far as wild yeast. Property is also littered with the odd wild raspberry bush as well as wild strawberries everywhere. To the point that it is often futile to break ground anywhere for anything as the strawberry runners don't take long to reclaim the broken ground.
When is the best time to collect? Spring of the year when everything is blooming? Thought about collecting under the choke cherry tree just to see what I would get.
Once you collect the yeast, is it beneficial just to let it propagate on its own in a jar with an airlock? Or could I put it on a stir plate right away? Or would the stir plate be too much for a young yeast collection?
Thanks
Scott
 

svenito

Member
Joined
Feb 8, 2018
Messages
8
Reaction score
1
Location
England
You're quite right about waiting for spring. You might get lucky in winter, but you'll get better results in warmer weather. Any season which is reasonably mild will work. I collected mine in March. Freezing temperatures will probably mean that there isn't much active or airborne yeast around.
Location, time of day, temperature etc, will influence what yeast you will capture. You can also try making the starter and dropping a single fruit into it for a day or two (don't let it rot in there) if you wish to try to get a more isolated yeast strain.
I'd let the yeast grow in the jar for a couple of weeks (like mentioned in the article) and then do a slow ramp up of starters. That is, start with a small starter and grow it gradually. So start with 250ml 1.040 santised wort and add your captured yeast. Treat this as you would any starter, i.e. keep it at a good temperature, aerate it, let the CO2 escape etc
Then after 2 days you should have around 3.3 billion cells, and now make a 1.5l 1.040 wort and top up the 500ml wort with the new wort. After another 2 days you should have aroudn 40billion cells. If you need more than that, leave the bottle in a fridge so that the yeast will for a sediment at the bottom. After about 48hours you can decant the old wort and top up with 1750ml of fresh wort. This should result in about 150billion cells.
Hope that helps
 

billslaw1024

Active Member
Joined
May 15, 2011
Messages
39
Reaction score
4
Location
Meriden
I brewed a saison a few years ago and fermented it with yeast off of raspberries in my yard. Turned out really good. It had slight tartness to it and a unique flavor. I made a starter, added the raspberries, stepped it up after it fermented out and pitched.
 

NeilMac

Well-Known Member
Joined
Jul 20, 2018
Messages
153
Reaction score
115
Location
Canada
Great Article Thanks!
Grapes are the easiest to get wild yeast, ones in the store with the white coating. Another great collection is organic apple cider, just recently I used the Apple Juice that stated to ferment in the bottle and use it to start a Sourdough starter, nice apple smell to it.
 

Brewbuzzard

Supporting Member
HBT Supporter
Joined
Dec 22, 2014
Messages
1,464
Reaction score
2,283
Location
Dallas
Danka for the article I'll give it a try. There is a very small brewery in Southern Illinois where I'm from originally named Scratch Brewery. It is ran by a husband and wife team. The wife is the brewer and her husband is a biologist or something. He collects wild yeast and bacteria from the forest around the brewery and they make some of the most Wonderful biers. They are becoming well known. I enjoy many different biers but I am a traditional German brewer. I just think they are the best. Malt over hops and clean. Prost
 

xben

Well-Known Member
Joined
Oct 3, 2013
Messages
86
Reaction score
8
Location
Montreal
I did it on last Wednesday and got a Krausen 3 days later (1/4 inch of foam) and it smells like beer so I assume I captured some good yeast! Next step is to transfer to my stir plate in few days and brew with it! Thanks for the article, very helpful!
 

Blackmuse

Well-Known Member
Joined
Mar 20, 2012
Messages
107
Reaction score
1
Location
Milton Mills
I too just tackled this! Caught a wild strain that gave me a cross between a belgian and a hefeweizen! Banana and xlove dominated and the yeast was much of a floculator. However, it finished down low! Like a belgian triple might! Very cool. Currently have it in a starter to step it up. I'd love to post a pic and show you all the rocky krausen on this thing. It just refuses to drop! Lol
 

TGFB

Active Member
Joined
Sep 6, 2017
Messages
41
Reaction score
13
Location
Hanover
Man, I wish I read this 10 minutes ago! used an outside stove top to make a simple quick beer, with a 15 minute hop schedule between warrior and cascade. Then cooled the wart to 150 in a sun room with the doors open, dropped in another Oz. of warrior then added water from a filtration system, air lock and down to the basement (where it sat since Saturday, 3-4 days) Very meticulous about sanitation. Using a yeast from past ales that I had been culturing, I went down to the basement to find my fermentor bubbling away.... it smelled fine, and wasn't sure what to do. Bacteria? wild yeast? so i just dumped in the ale yeast, as a competitor, and hoped for the best.
If I had read this, the experiment would be on! try to culture and let it go, then determine if it was a bacterial infection, or some delicious wild yeast. Would have tasted it before adding the cultured yeast. Any recommendations? could try to pull some out and take a look to see if there are any of the usual suspects of bacterial infection...
 
Top