Yes, you can use a growler for bottle carbing as long as the seal and bottle has the proper pressure rating for CO2 volume.
I've been interested in bulk carbing with pressure-rated growlers myself. They are expensive, though. I have several clear one liter Grolsch-style flip top bottles but don't trust them for carbonating beer, so I researched carbing in growlers that were made with heavier glass or metal. Northern Brewer and other outlets sell a couple versions of a German-made 2liter brown glass flip-top that is acceptable for carbing, but it's wise to keep the pressure in a conservative range like 2-2.5 volumes.
One of the most expensive versions is the GrowlerWorks U-Keg. It's made of metal and comes with a CO2 cylinder for storing your beer. The price puts it out of the range of most people but it can carb raw ale or lager.
Champagne bottles, on the other hand, will handle high levels of carbonation but require special attention. Many beer caps you'll find won't fit the mouth of a champagne bottle. You're better off corking and using a twist-wire to secure the cork, much like the 750ml Belgian Chimay bottles.
If you're referring to your standard twist cap growler from your local brewery, it's probably not a good idea. The cap will likely leak pressure. I think that's why they tell you to consume it within a couple days or it will be flat. Or there's a chance the cap will hold and the glass might break from the pressure ( not sure how realistic if a risk that is).
I bottle in growlers all the time. Both the fancy ones with the grolsch style flip tops and the cheap screw top ones.
I do keep the carbonation below 2.5 and I drink the growlers before my bottles. I have had the screw top ones loose carbonation after a couple months. That's part of why I try to drink the growlers first.
I know they are not designed for bottling and I've seen a couple pictures of exploded growlers on this message board, but I've also seen exploded bottles. Shure beats cleaning more bottles and I have more growlers than I know what to do with. It's nice too if you're entertaining to have one growler to pour from.