For those considering their first brew...let's talk about kveik yeast!

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seatazzz

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If you are considering your first homebrew, welcome! There is a HUGE amount of information in these threads that are helpful and informative. And some that may scare you into scuttling away at a fast pace. The majority of us here are more than happy to offer help and information. A recent discussion between myself and @Jayjay1976 led me to post this.

One thing we see a lot of, on the Beginner's Beer Brewing Forum, are questions about fermentation; how long before my beer is done, do I need to move to secondary (NO!!), when do I know my fermentation is finished, and the oh crap I pitched yeast into too-hot wort (I posted that MANY times). Not to mention questions about equipment, process, ad infinitum. For this post, I am going to focus on yeast, specifically kveik; also known as Norwegian Farmhouse yeast, or by the strains that have names like Hornindal, Voss, and just plain kveik (which after much googling is pronounced KVAKE). Yah try to say that without spitting. In the interest of space, I strongly suggest you google it and learn more about the history of this hardy yeast strain.

This yeast strain has seen a renaissance in the last few years, with many yeast manufacturers jumping into the ring; most recently Lallemand with their dry version. The pros of this yeast strain are numerous; high temperature tolerance (up to 110°!!), clean fermentation, and FAST. Your basic ale yeast (sacchoromyces cervesiae) is usually finished, with both primary fermentation and what is termed "cleanup" of byproducts of fermentation, in about 7-10 days, and does better if left in primary (will say is again, you do NOT need a secondary) for about 14 days. Kveik yeast does the same thing in about 5-10 days, or less if you really want to push it. Blink and you might miss primary fermentation, it's that fast. The benefits are obvious; less time between brewday and actually having drinkable beer is the one that is most noted. Some strains of kveik, at higher temperatures, also throw some desirable esters (citrus being the most noted) that can enhance the recipe you pitch it on, particularly NEIPAs and anything else you want a fruity/citrusy flavor to. I like Imperial Loki for my IPA's, I also have a very nice blonde on tap fermented on it right now that is bright, crisp, slightly citrusy, and refreshing.

So, what does this mean to you, the new homebrewer? If you, like many of us, are starting out with minimal equipment, it can mean a drinkable, nay, TASTY, beer after your hard work, in less time. Brewing beer, be it extract, partial mash, or all grain, isn't really that complicated; all you are doing is making sugar (specifically maltose) water for yeast to eat, so they can fart co2 and pee alcohol (yes not very scientific, but that's what they do). One of the most difficult aspects of a brewday is getting that hot sweet wort down to a temperature that yeast will work in. And keeping it at that temperature for the time it takes for the yeast to finish their jobs. Think of yeast as your snarky co-worker that complains about the temperature in the office; turn the thermostat up too high, or low, and production suffers. Keep it at their comfort level, and they will work their butts off. Kveik works best between 90-110°, but also does well at "traditional" ale temperatures, 65-70°.

I don't mean this post for new brewers to ignore more traditional fermentation techniques; but I do see a lot of new brewers (including myself about 5 years ago) not having the patience to wait that 10-14 days before I can enjoy the fruits of my labors. Or longer if you bottle; another 2 weeks before it's carbonated and ready to drink? I do keg, but I bet I could have a kveik-fermented batch, bottled and ready to drink, 10-14 days from brewday. And yes, we are (at least in my neck of the woods) entering fall/winter, when a warm fermentation isn't really feasible; but I've done kveik batches in winter in my house, where the heat is constant, and come out with good beer at the end.

Why did I post this? For a very good reason; as homebrewers, we all like to share what we do, and help anyone thinking about jumping into this hobby/obsession to go in the right direction. Kveik yeast is, for the most part, foolproof; and will produce good beer, as long as good sanitation practices are followed.
 
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To build on what @seatazzz said above about skipping secondary, a fast Kveik fermentation means getting the beer packaged in a shorter time with less chances for oxygen exposure. This should greatly increase the chances of success with popular IPA, NEIPA and DIPA styles.
 

McMullan

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This is only sound advice if the character of the beer you aim to brew isn't determined by the yeast pitched. If you're aiming to brew an extremely hoppy pea soup I'm sure it's going to work out for you. But I'm pretty sure many people who decide to have a go at home brew have other beer styles in mind. For these styles - that are largely dependent on yeast strains - I'd just recommend the novice starts with a dry yeast that matches the style they aim for most closely. A kveik yeast isn't going to work for most beer styles. Fact.
 

hotbeer

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So if I don't use Kveik I must use a secondary?

My apologies for maybe misrepresenting how important or not it was to your overall theme.

I enjoyed the info very much though. Just not sure why a secondary was even part of the equation since many advocate not using a secondary for most beers made today. Though some specific beers might benefit despite which yeast is used.
 

McMullan

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All beers benefit from time in a secondary before final packaging, in reality. It's a filtering step more than anything. It just depends on what the individual is prepared to accept as 'good enough for them' within 'x time'. Ironically, as kveik is often recommended on turnaround time, a secondary speeds up the process regardless of yeast strain pitched. It seems appropriate to note too that a skilled home brewer should be able to go from grain to glass within a week or two whilst using more appropriate yeast strains for a given style. Even lagers! My advice has always been use kveik if the aim is to produce a Norwegian farmhouse ale. Whatever that is :eek:
 

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@McMullan I am going to strongly disagree with your notion that most beers benefit from time in secondary. All that does is increase risk of oxidation at transfer and during the extended time in secondary. If extra time for "filtering" is desired, keep in the primary, and cold crash-- or just leave at the constant temp.

That said, I agree with you when you say, " It seems appropriate to note too that a skilled home brewer should be able to go from grain to glass within a week or two..."

Pitch the appropriate amount of healthy yeast, provide the proper amount of oxygen at pitch, and ferment at the recommended temps and you should be able to have a beer of say 1.060-1.070 or below from grain to glass in one to two weeks.
 

D.B.Moody

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@McMullan I am going to strongly disagree with your notion that most beers benefit from time in secondary. All that does is increase risk of oxidation
The problem with the warnings against doing a secondary is that too many people say to not do a secondary but fail to point out what exactly oxidation does to beer. I have found that I like what it does to the type of beer I brew. I will also state that I have never seen a beer clear in a primary as fast as one that was transferred to a secondary. (And, yes, I have done comparison batches.)
 
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@seatazzz : with regard to kveik yeast, you offer some interesting ideas.

Seriously consider rewriting and reposting what you initially posted with an extremely tight focus on just using kveik yeast. Avoid the 'aside' comments that often cause topics here at HomebrewTalk to go 'astray'.

Brewing beer, be it extract, partial mash, or all grain, isn't really that complicated ...
... and kveik yeast can be part of that solution for some/many styles of beer.

Two suggestions: 1) don't mention "secondary" fermentation; 2) avoid phrases like "can fart co2 and pee alcohol".

Instead, ...

Offer a poka-yoked (link) process that works with kveik yeast.
 

Sunfire96

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Kveik rhymes with bike



For any new brewers, be sure you understand the flavor of the yeast you will be using. Kveik does not taste like the beers you are used to buying in stores. It's a farmhouse strain, meaning it can get a little funky and tart. Some strains moreso than others. Some people seem to not notice it as much as others.
 

Immocles

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Kveik rhymes with bike



For any new brewers, be sure you understand the flavor of the yeast you will be using. Kveik does not taste like the beers you are used to buying in stores. It's a farmhouse strain, meaning it can get a little funky and tart. Some strains moreso than others. Some people seem to not notice it as much as others.

That’s my caution as well. I don’t hate the kveik flavor, but I couldn’t handle it in all of my beers.
 

McMullan

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Kveik rhymes with bike



For any new brewers, be sure you understand the flavor of the yeast you will be using. Kveik does not taste like the beers you are used to buying in stores. It's a farmhouse strain, meaning it can get a little funky and tart. Some strains moreso than others. Some people seem to not notice it as much as others.


I find it best to view kveik for what it is, unrefined. The crude practices that kept it going, by the skin of its teeth, and erratic supply of ingredients generally in Norway, historically, were never going to facilitate establishment of a consistent regional style that developed over time, as it did in other nations. Norway lacks sufficient arable land to develop a regional beer culture and the climate is often unforgiving for crops. That's the reality. Kveik is a backwater in Norway - Norwegians generally didn't even know about it until a few years ago, which is surprising given how much they celebrate their national identity, including the alcohol problem its government strives to tax away. I see three reasons why people choose to pitch kveik. Being hoodwinked by a disproportionate online marketing/PR campaign; romantic beliefs about historical brewing in Norway, which is linked to the marketing campaign; and making a Norwegian farmhouse ale. Making a Norwegian farmhouse ale, whatever that's supposed to be, is the only reason you'd want to pitch kveik. There are much better brewer's yeasts for most other styles of beer. Hundreds of brewer's yeasts are now available to home brewers. It's fantastic! So, again, unless the aim is to brew what's believed to be a Norwegian farmhouse ale, I'd recommend using a more refined brewer's yeast that's been carefully selected for refined qualities over generations of serious cultural development in brewing.
 
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seatazzz

seatazzz

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Wow that escalated quickly.

I did get a bit wordy, but I've been writing for many years (not this post, but it did take me a good hour or so) and tend to try to inject some humor into my writings to keep the reader's interest. In this case, it was directed at brand-new homebrewers, who may have one Mr Beer or BB kit under their belt and are grabbing their keys to make a visit to their LHBS. Or maybe another one who is put off by the standard "14 days in primary" before they can even think about bottling, which is where most beginners start. Yes, many homebrewers go grain or extract to glass in 7-10 days, on yeast that is more "true to style" for whatever they are brewing; I'm one of them. We all know there are still kits out there that direct the brewer to move the beer to secondary after the first 14 days, despite countless articles, posts, what have you, that prove a secondary is not necessary, and very probably detrimental to the beer due to oxygen or bacteria exposure.

We all remember our first brew; that long wait to see if it was done right. And if minimal equipment, no way to brew another one until the first one was done and packaged. Kveik can shorten that time by a LOT. And, since it is mostly foolproof, they are going to get, maybe not stellar, but drinkable beer in less time.

A word about kveik yeast restricting a brewer from brewing a beer that depends on the yeast for its character; there are MANY strains of kveik out there now; my next purchase will be a pack of Lutra to see if I can get a lager-ish beer as fast as I can get an ale on Loki. And the best advice I've seen to a new homebrewer, who is gung-ho to brew up that pumpkin spice altbier aged on glenlivet-soaked oak cubes from a tiny forest in Albania as their first beer; start with something simple, like a blonde or a pale. Hornindal or Voss are perfect for something like that.

Anyway, TL;DR.
 
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Wow that escalated quickly.
Seriously consider rewriting and reposting what you initially posted with an extremely tight focus on just using kveik yeast. Avoid the 'aside' comments that often cause topics here at HomebrewTalk to go 'astray'.

Otherwise, things like this happen ...

due to oxygen or bacteria exposure.
Techniques for mitigating contamination and oxygen ingress are also well know.
 

StayThirsty

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Great idea. A beginner can also gain benefits from using one of the dried kviek yeasts available:
  • No need for a starter means less equipment, complexity, and time
  • Little risk of underpitching
  • No need to refrigerate yeast during shipping or storage
Kviek (liquid or dry) offers additional benefits to the beginner:
  • Fermentation starts rapidly reducing infection risks
  • Faster start of fermentation reduces beginner angst (“Nothing’s happening, did I do it right?”)
 
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@StayThirsty : many of us, when Kveik was first introduced (2017? 2018?), sampled beers made with Kveik. For me, the beer was, at best, meh. I suspect that "meh" opinion is true of many others - and we've chosen to "never look back".

Convince me to "try it again for the first time".

What recipes would you recommend that make a great beer and "showcase" specific a strain of Kveik yeast?
 

CascadesBrewer

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I do think that Kveik should be recommended more to new brewers, especially those that do not have cool areas to ferment typical ales. In my experience, Voss works well at a warm ambient temp, and using a $25 seedling mat + controller with a blanket is a cheap and easy way to keep it warm.

My question would be of Kveik is a great choice for a wide variety of styles? I have only used Voss myself and all times have been for a hoppy Pale Ale or IPA style beer. I think it is a wonderful yeast for those and the character of Voss fits in with hop flavors. While I have had a decent Irish Stout made with Voss, there are a lot of styles that I am not sure I would recommend...but I also have not brewed with anything other than Voss and I want to play around more with Voss (or other Kveik) fermented at standard room temperature.
 

Knightshade

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Wow that escalated quickly.


And the best advice I've seen to a new homebrewer, who is gung-ho to brew up that pumpkin spice altbier aged on glenlivet-soaked oak cubes from a tiny forest in Albania as their first beer; start with something simple, like a blonde or a pale.

Humor achieved with the above two statements. 😜👍
 

Dland

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Great idea. A beginner can also gain benefits from using one of the dried kviek yeasts available:
  • No need for a starter means less equipment, complexity, and time
  • Little risk of underpitching
  • No need to refrigerate yeast during shipping or storage
Kviek (liquid or dry) offers additional benefits to the beginner:
  • Fermentation starts rapidly reducing infection risks
  • Faster start of fermentation reduces beginner angst (“Nothing’s happening, did I do it right?”)

All of the above attributes also apply to other dried yeasts, esp Fermentis products, assuming one follows mfg's instructions to pitch dry and at recommended quantities.

If I were coaching a beginning non-kit brewer who wanted to make a beer flavored beer, I'd recommend starting w a simple ale with US-05.
 

CascadesBrewer

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If I were coaching a beginning non-kit brewer who wanted to make a beer flavored beer, I'd recommend starting w a simple ale with US-05.

In my mind, the hole that Kveik strains fill are the new brewers that don't have a cool area to ferment a typical ale. US-05 is one of the more flexible yeast, but I would not recommend fermenting a 5 gallon batch in a 74F room...especially if that room gets 78F during the day when away at work or when the person is out of town for the weekend.

I would be curious to taste something like an American Porter or American Blond or Cream Ale with one fermented in a 74F room using a Kveik like Lutra and one fermented under temperature control with a "clean" ale strain like US-05 or Nottingham.
 

Velnerj

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I think starting with kveik is both a good idea and also could be detrimental for new brewers.

Why wouldn't we be recommending a super yeast that ferments clean and quickly at room temperatures? Why wouldn't we be recommending a yeast that couldn't possibly be underpitched (or over pitched?)? Why wouldn't we be recommending a yeast that can be easily harvested and reused? Why wouldn't we be recommending a yeast that can fit into many popular styles?

That all makes a lot of sense and that's probably where I'd steer new brewers who don't have a fermentation Chamber and dig the ipa or stouts etc.

Why it could be detrimental is that if said new brewer switches yeast from kveik to a more classic one after some good experience. Then decides to use the same practices as kveik, they'll be disappointed and may not find the learning curve favorable. But most likely they'll already be hooked and will invest in a mini fridge....
 

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You guys are kindly ignoring the downside of kveiks. All kveiks that I have brewed with up until now have the kveik twang. Yes, also lutra. That is a matter of taste. You can like it or not. Sometimes I am OK with it, but in general... nope. I prefer a beer without that. That should be mentioned, especially to new and unexperienced brewers. Otherwise they would think that "homebrew just tastes that way...".
 

McMullan

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Wow that escalated quickly.

I did get a bit wordy, but I've been writing for many years (not this post, but it did take me a good hour or so) and tend to try to inject some humor into my writings to keep the reader's interest. In this case, it was directed at brand-new homebrewers, who may have one Mr Beer or BB kit under their belt and are grabbing their keys to make a visit to their LHBS. Or maybe another one who is put off by the standard "14 days in primary" before they can even think about bottling, which is where most beginners start. Yes, many homebrewers go grain or extract to glass in 7-10 days, on yeast that is more "true to style" for whatever they are brewing; I'm one of them. We all know there are still kits out there that direct the brewer to move the beer to secondary after the first 14 days, despite countless articles, posts, what have you, that prove a secondary is not necessary, and very probably detrimental to the beer due to oxygen or bacteria exposure.

We all remember our first brew; that long wait to see if it was done right. And if minimal equipment, no way to brew another one until the first one was done and packaged. Kveik can shorten that time by a LOT. And, since it is mostly foolproof, they are going to get, maybe not stellar, but drinkable beer in less time.

A word about kveik yeast restricting a brewer from brewing a beer that depends on the yeast for its character; there are MANY strains of kveik out there now; my next purchase will be a pack of Lutra to see if I can get a lager-ish beer as fast as I can get an ale on Loki. And the best advice I've seen to a new homebrewer, who is gung-ho to brew up that pumpkin spice altbier aged on glenlivet-soaked oak cubes from a tiny forest in Albania as their first beer; start with something simple, like a blonde or a pale. Hornindal or Voss are perfect for something like that.

Anyway, TL;DR.
I think one of the most important things a credible writer could ever express - even in this digital age, where everyone’s an expert in diddly-squat - is he has a bloody clue about whatever it is he claims to be typing bollocks about. It would be fascinating to know, for example, how he reconciles his opinions (which are clearly based on lore and fallacy generally) that a secondary isn’t required with the fact home brew conical FVs have gone, wait for it, orgasmic, and the fact it's an established best practice for professional brewers.

I didn’t type a secondary was necessary, though. I typed most beers benefit from some time in a secondary. This is a fact. Obviously, if a brewer is struggling to transfer beer from vessel to vessel without promoting a negative level of oxidation he needs to reevaluate his procedures. I’m now sat here wondering how he even manages to transfer successfully from primary to keg, to be honest. Let’s think about it for a moment, shall we? Let’s think before typing, shall we? That’s what I’d describe as the beginnings of ‘escalation’. But that’s just me rejecting ********. Because that’s how I’m hardwired.
 

Knightshade

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For someone who isn’t a complete newb, but has never brewed with Kveik, I’m finding this thread very informational. (And a little entertaining)

At one point a friend of mine was 😤 because he couldn’t control temps in his TX garage despite his best gun decked efforts of keeping his fermenter cool. I kept telling him to try kveik, not based on any actual 1st person knowledge, but only off of the qualification that garage temps ranged from 80-95 and that seemed like an easy win.

Had he ever followed through and used it and complained about the final product, I would have been🤷‍♂️
 

McMullan

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Yeah, I tried kveik 4 or 5 years ago and I thought it was genuinely sh*t, mainly because it was. Sh*t, that is. I guess I could've just typed that earlier, but I think it's important to at least try to explain why some people seem to be so full of sh*t generally. Any basic side-by-side comparison is going to confirm this reality. With or without my observations.
 
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That is a matter of taste. You can like it or not. Sometimes I am OK with it, but in general... nope.
Yup.

On the other hand, one might be able to "hop over" those yeast flavors with a solid recipe or control those yeast flavors with with right ambient temperature range or (wait for it) fermentation temperature control.

talking to readers in general:

As I said earlier ...

Convince me to "try it again for the first time".

What recipes would you recommend that make a great beer and "showcase" a specific a strain of Kveik yeast?
 

Hoppy2bmerry

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Yeah, I tried kveik 4 or 5 years ago and I thought it was genuinely sh*t, mainly because it was. Sh*t, that is. I guess I could've just typed that earlier, but I think it's important to at least try to explain why some people seem to be so full of sh*t generally. Any basic side-by-side comparison is going to confirm this reality. With or without my observations.
“Trying” one strain and decrying them all as sh*t, without further investigation? Pitch rates influence the results, and different strains have unique characteristics. You are entitled to your opinion, even if it is based on the tiniest bit of experience, but when you attempt to throw your weight around like an expert it is just unbecoming and uncalled for.
 

Hoppy2bmerry

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Someone has asked twice for recipes that showcase Kevik yeast.
Surely if that someone is not a “spoon feeder” they could search or even borrow a book to get a recipe or one hundred.

One thing I agree with is that in most cases where the yeast imparts characteristics for a particular style kveik is not a good substitute, for example a Hefeweizen. However, I have tasted homebrew that was very clean made with kveik. Granted I do not have judging experience nor an expert palate, but picking up Voss orange peel and Christmas spice doesn’t take a special ability, and knowing that under pitching brings those flavors out comes from learning about it. A big pitch of Voss can taste clean, when I tasted a club member’s beer I was surprised to learn that the brewer used Voss.
 
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Surely if that someone is not a “spoon feeder” they could search or even borrow a book to get a recipe or one hundred.

Claims (Kevik yeast makes good beer) require evidence (recommended recipes).

I won't be offended if no one offers evidence.

No need to digress to name calling ("spoon feeder").
 

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I was just at a friend's place this evening and he has his first Lutra "lager" on tap. It was a very nice beer that showcased grain and hop character. If there was some "off" character from the Lutra, I did not detect it. I don't brew or drink many pale lager style beers but he does. Eventually I hope to do a side by side of the Lutra and the other half of the batch that was fermented with a traditional lager yeast and schedule. The issue is that the traditional lager batch is still in the fermenter with a solid head of krausen, while the Lutra batch has been in a keg for a week. I don't have a recipe to share, but it was a standard Pilsner + Saaz type beer. I think he fermented in the 90F range.

If somebody wants a recipe for a hoppy Pale Ale with Voss, here is one: - Recipe - BeerSmith Cloud

As far as a new brewer, I would say that following one of the Pale Ale or IPA recipes from "How to Brew" with either Voss or Hornindal would make a wonderful beer.
 

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“Trying” one strain and decrying them all as sh*t, without further investigation? Pitch rates influence the results, and different strains have unique characteristics. You are entitled to your opinion, even if it is based on the tiniest bit of experience, but when you attempt to throw your weight around like an expert it is just unbecoming and uncalled for.
I live in Norway, mate. Brewing a Norwegian farmhouse ale, with the finest imported ingredients and skill, almost became an annual thing for a family shindig at the outlaw's cabin in the mountains. I haven't bothered since the virus, but once the novelty faded people focused a lot more on drinking from other kegs. The Norwegian farmhouse ale was always last to disappear. I've tried three kveik strains and I, personally, thought they were all sh*t, because I know the beers could have been much better if fermented with better brewer's yeasts. Even a sensible hoppy American IPA was so much better fermented with an American ale yeast.
 

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I live in Norway, mate. Brewing a Norwegian farmhouse ale, with the finest imported ingredients and skill, almost became an annual thing for a family shindig at the outlaw's cabin in the mountains. I haven't bothered since the virus, but once the novelty faded people focused a lot more on drinking from other kegs. The Norwegian farmhouse ale was always last to disappear. I've tried three kveik strains and I, personally, thought they were all sh*t, because I know the beers could have been much better if fermented with better brewer's yeasts. Even a sensible hoppy American IPA was so much better fermented with an American ale yeast.
I made an enjoyable beer with lutra, it was clean but it had that acidic twang that all kveiks seem to have. Lutra was the one with the lowest amount of twang, but still there. I had Voss from multiple vendors, I had a real kveik from a farm in Norway and I had lutra. When I had a professional brewer try my lutra APA, he instantly said that's a kveik. I didn't do any fancy stuff with it, just solid sub 5% session APA recipe. Fermented warm.

So yes, would have been probably better with us05.

Kveik can be good but it can also be off putting. As long as we don't understand fully how this kveik twang can be controlled (it's not pitch rate dependent, that much I know from experience), I wouldn't recommend kveiks to beginners.

Good old us05 pale ale will do the job just fine. Pale base, maybe 5-10% medium crystal plus one C-hop. That will result in a great beer.
 
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they could search or even borrow a [recommeded] book
With regard to algorithmic referrals and recommendations, algorithms are like people: once I lose their trust on one topic, I'm much more skeptical of it's recommendations on any topic.

Plus the strength of people-based recommendations is that those results are generally recommended based on actual experience.
 

CascadesBrewer

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"Recipe not found - It may have been deleted or made private "

Fixed.

I get it. Some people think that Brusolophy is full of ****. Some people think that the LODO crowd is full of ****. Some people think that all beers made with Kveik taste like ****. Some people treat their opinion as fact.

At this point in the game, there are enough brewers (both homebrewers and commercial brewers) that are making beers that they and their customers enjoy that it is hard for me to believe that some people don't think Kveik is "real". I agree with the general premise of the OP...that Kveik strains are very easy to use and would be a good yeast for a beginner. I am not sure "not having the patience to wait" is the big selling point.
 

Hoppy2bmerry

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Claims (Kevik yeast makes good beer) require evidence (recommended recipes).

I won't be offended if no one offers evidence.

No need to digress to name calling ("spoon feeder").
What one thinks is “good“ beer is subjective, is it not? I have tasted some lackluster homebrews from “good” brewers and from pro breweries. I don’t know you, nor have I tasted your homebrew to learn if you are indeed a capable brewer, and the same goes for your knowledge of me. What I get from this thread about you is you have a tendency to be controlling, evidenced by your multiple suggestions that the OP rewrite the post. You like to, shall we say, debate. Now you insist that someone provide a recipe, even though you could nearly effortlessly find several on your own.

Good reading on the topic for you if you choose. Lars Marius Garshol The author also blogs so I imagine you could get a good amount of information there, and from the registry link I shared earlier.

Be well, sorry we’ve gotten off on the wrong foot so-to-speak.
 
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