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Bock

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Bock is a general term used to describe a number of usually strong, usually dark malty German lagers that developed in Munich, based on the influence of the traditional brewers of Einbeck.

Contents

[edit] History of Bock

The name "Bock" refers to the city of Einbeck, in Saxony. During the heyday of the Hanseatic League, Einbeck was a brewing center whose beer was famous throughout Europe. However, the modern style was created in Munich in the 17th Century based on Einbeck models.

[edit] Types of Bock

[edit] Bock

The standard Bock beer is a strong, dark lager with a rich malt flavor derived from the use of melanoidin-rich malts, especially Munich malt, and accentuated by decoction mashing.

[edit] Doppelbock

Originally brewed as a seasonal specialty by the monks of St. Francis of Paula, all Doppelbocks are derived from the Paulaner Salvator. Stronger in alcohol and flavor than ordinary bocks, they are usually sweet and often lack significant hop character. Most Doppelbocks resemble a stronger, more concentrated version of the traditional Munich Bock, but some light-colored beers, similar in character to a stronger Helles Bock or Maibock, are also available.

[edit] Heller Bock

A Heller Bock, sometimes called Helles Bock, is essentially a Bock beer brewed with lighter malts. It usually features less of a melanoidin or Munich malt character and sometimes a more pronounced hop aroma and flavor.

[edit] Maibock

Sometimes used as a synonym for Helles Bock, although some consider true Maibock to be a stronger beer brewed seasonally for drinking at festivals.

[edit] Weizenbock

Also called Weissbock, this style is a stronger, maltier version of a Dunkelweizen. A cross between a Weizen and a Bock, it is described more fully in the entry on Weizen.

[edit] Eisbock

An Eisbock is a Doppelbock that has undergone an additional step in processing. After fermentation, the beer is cooled below the freezing point of water. The water can then be lifted out of the beer, leaving the liquid alcohol behind. This results in a stronger beer with more concentrated character. Homebrewers should be aware that concentrating a beer by freezing may be illegal in some states, just as home distillation is. Eisbock can also be made from other kinds of bock; for example, an eisbock made with weizenbock is called a Weizeneisbock.

In Franconia, Eisbock is referred to as G'frorns, meaning "Frozen".

[edit] Baby Bock

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[edit] Norwegian Bock

Known as bokkøl. Øl meaning beer

[edit] Dutch Bok

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[edit] Bock Rauchbier

A Bock Rauchbier is a Bock beer brewed with smoked malt. A traditional Bamberg style, it is more fully described in the entry for Rauchbier.

[edit] American "Bock"

In the United States after Prohibition, many brewers of traditional American Pale Lager also brewed a darker beer that they called a "Bock". Unlike traditional German bocks, however, these beers were distinguished from Pale Lager primarily by their color; they lacked the rich malty flavors of the German beers. Often American bocks were colored with a small amount of dark malt, or simply with a neutral-flavored food coloring. Those made with more than just color are better considered as examples of the Dark American Lager style rather than true Bocks.

[edit] Urbock

Urbock is a term used by the Einbecker Brauhaus, the most prominent Bock beer brewery remaining in the city of Einbeck, to distinguish its "original" Bock beers from the more famous Munich versions.

[edit] Brewing Bock

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Bock beers were traditionally brewed using a multi-step decoction mash. Traditional German brewers, and many home brewers, believe that this contributes to the rich malt flavor traditional in the style. For all German bocks except for Helles Bock and Maibock, the caramelization created by decoction mashing is emphasized by the use of a longer-than-usual boil.

[edit] Competition Styles

Both the BJCP and the GABF style guidelines recognize Bock beer and many of its traditional variants.

The GABF also recognizes Bock Rauchbier as a distinctive style; it is listed under Rauchbier rather than here. Both organizations also recognize Weizenbock; those guidelines are listed under Weizen rather than here.

[edit] BJCP Style Guidelines

[edit] Maibock/Helles Bock

5A. Maibock/Helles Bock Vital Statistics
BJCP Style Guideline Definition (2004)
IBUs: 23-35+ SRM: 6-11 OG: 1.064-1.072 FG: 1.011-1.018 ABV: 6.3-7.4
Aroma: Moderate to strong malt aroma, often with a lightly toasted quality and low melanoidins. Moderately low to no noble hop aroma, often with a spicy quality. Clean. No diacetyl. Fruity esters should be low to none. Some alcohol may be noticeable. May have a light DMS aroma from pils malt.
Appearance: Deep gold to light amber in color. Lagering should provide good clarity. Large, creamy, persistent, white head.
Flavor: Moderate to strong malt aroma, often with a lightly toasted quality and low melanoidins. Moderately low to no noble hop aroma, often with a spicy quality. Clean. No diacetyl. Fruity esters should be low to none. Some alcohol may be noticeable. May have a light DMS aroma from pils malt.
Mouthfeel: Medium-bodied. Moderate to moderately high carbonation. Smooth and clean with no harshness or astringency, despite the increased hop bitterness. Some alcohol warming may be present.
Overall Impression: Moderate to strong malt aroma, often with a lightly toasted quality and low melanoidins. Moderately low to no noble hop aroma, often with a spicy quality. Clean. No diacetyl. Fruity esters should be low to none. Some alcohol may be noticeable. May have a light DMS aroma from pils malt.
History: A fairly recent development in comparison to the other members of the bock family. The serving of Maibock is specifically associated with springtime and the month of May.
Comments: Can be thought of as either a pale version of a traditional bock, or a Munich helles brewed to bock strength. While quite malty, this beer typically has less dark and rich malt flavors than a traditional bock. May also be drier, hoppier, and more bitter than a traditional bock. The hops compensate for the lower level of melanoidins. There is some dispute whether Helles ("pale") Bock and Mai ("May") Bock are synonymous. Most agree that they are identical (as is the consensus for Märzen and Oktoberfest), but some believe that Maibock is a "fest" type beer hitting the upper limits of hopping and color for the range. Any fruitiness is due to Munich and other specialty malts, not yeast-derived esters developed during fermentation.
Ingredients: Base of pils and/or Vienna malt with some Munich malt to add character (although much less than in a traditional bock). No non-malt adjuncts. Noble hops. Soft water preferred so as to avoid harshness. Clean lager yeast. Decoction mash is typical, but boiling is less than in traditional bocks to restrain color development.
Commercial Examples: Ayinger Maibock, Hacker-Pschorr Hubertus Bock, Einbecker Mai-Urbock, Augustiner Hellerbock, Hofbräu Maibock, Capital Maibock, Victory St. Boisterous, Gordon Biersch Blonde Bock


[edit] Traditional Bock

5B. Traditional Bock Vital Statistics
BJCP Style Guideline Definition (2004)
IBUs: 20-27 SRM: 14-22 OG: 1.064-1.072 FG: 1.013-1.019 ABV: 6.3-7.2
Aroma: Strong malt aroma, often with moderate amounts of rich melanoidins and/or toasty overtones. Virtually no hop aroma. Some alcohol may be noticeable. Clean. No diacetyl. Low to no fruity esters.
Appearance: Light copper to brown color, often with attractive garnet highlights. Lagering should provide good clarity despite the dark color. Large, creamy, persistent, off-white head.
Flavor: Strong malt aroma, often with moderate amounts of rich melanoidins and/or toasty overtones. Virtually no hop aroma. Some alcohol may be noticeable. Clean. No diacetyl. Low to no fruity esters.
Mouthfeel: Medium to medium-full bodied. Moderate to moderately low carbonation. Some alcohol warmth may be found, but should never be hot. Smooth, without harshness or astringency.
Overall Impression: Strong malt aroma, often with moderate amounts of rich melanoidins and/or toasty overtones. Virtually no hop aroma. Some alcohol may be noticeable. Clean. No diacetyl. Low to no fruity esters.
History: Originated in the Northern German city of Einbeck, which was a brewing center and popular exporter in the days of the Hanseatic League (14th to 17th century). Recreated in Munich starting in the 17th century. The name "bock" is based on a corruption of the name "Einbeck" in the Bavarian dialect, and was thus only used after the beer came to Munich. "Bock" also means "billy-goat" in German, and is often used in logos and advertisements.
Comments: Decoction mashing and long boiling plays an important part of flavor development, as it enhances the caramel and melanoidin flavor aspects of the malt. Any fruitiness is due to Munich and other specialty malts, not yeast-derived esters developed during fermentation.
Ingredients: Munich and Vienna malts, rarely a tiny bit of dark roasted malts for color adjustment, never any non-malt adjuncts. Continental European hop varieties are used. Clean lager yeast. Water hardness can vary, although moderately carbonate water is typical of Munich.
Commercial Examples: Einbecker Ur-Bock Dunkel, Aass Bock, Great Lakes Rockefeller Bock


[edit] Doppelbock

5C. Doppelbock Vital Statistics
BJCP Style Guideline Definition (2004)
IBUs: 16-26+ SRM: 6-25 OG: 1.072-1.096+ FG: 1.016-1.024+ ABV: 7-10
Aroma: Very strong maltiness. Darker versions will have significant melanoidins and often some toasty aromas. A light caramel flavor from a long boil is acceptable. Lighter versions will have a strong malt presence with some melanoidins and toasty notes. Virtually no hop aroma, although a light noble hop aroma is acceptable in pale versions. No diacetyl. A moderately low fruity aspect to the aroma often described as prune, plum or grape may be present (but is optional) in dark versions due to reactions between malt, the boil, and aging. A very slight chocolate-like aroma may be present in darker versions, but no roasted or burned aromatics should ever be present. Moderate alcohol aroma may be present.
Appearance: Deep gold to dark brown in color. Darker versions often have ruby highlights. Lagering should provide good clarity. Large, creamy, persistent head (color varies with base style: white for pale versions, off-white for dark varieties). Stronger versions might have impaired head retention, and can display noticeable legs.
Flavor: Very strong maltiness. Darker versions will have significant melanoidins and often some toasty aromas. A light caramel flavor from a long boil is acceptable. Lighter versions will have a strong malt presence with some melanoidins and toasty notes. Virtually no hop aroma, although a light noble hop aroma is acceptable in pale versions. No diacetyl. A moderately low fruity aspect to the aroma often described as prune, plum or grape may be present (but is optional) in dark versions due to reactions between malt, the boil, and aging. A very slight chocolate-like aroma may be present in darker versions, but no roasted or burned aromatics should ever be present. Moderate alcohol aroma may be present.
Mouthfeel: Medium-full to full body. Moderate to moderately-low carbonation. Very smooth without harshness or astringency.
Overall Impression: Very strong maltiness. Darker versions will have significant melanoidins and often some toasty aromas. A light caramel flavor from a long boil is acceptable. Lighter versions will have a strong malt presence with some melanoidins and toasty notes. Virtually no hop aroma, although a light noble hop aroma is acceptable in pale versions. No diacetyl. A moderately low fruity aspect to the aroma often described as prune, plum or grape may be present (but is optional) in dark versions due to reactions between malt, the boil, and aging. A very slight chocolate-like aroma may be present in darker versions, but no roasted or burned aromatics should ever be present. Moderate alcohol aroma may be present.
History: A Bavarian specialty first brewed in Munich by the monks of St. Francis of Paula. Historical versions were less well attenuated than modern interpretations, with consequently higher sweetness and lower alcohol levels (and hence was considered "liquid bread" by the monks). The term "doppel (double) bock" was coined by Munich consumers. Many doppelbocks have names ending in "-ator," either as a tribute to the prototypical Salvator or to take advantage of the beer's popularity.
Comments: Most versions are dark colored and may display the caramelizing and melanoidin effect of decoction mashing, but excellent pale versions also exist. The pale versions will not have the same richness and darker malt flavors of the dark versions, and may be a bit drier, hoppier and more bitter. While most traditional examples are in the ranges cited, the style can be considered to have no upper limit for gravity, alcohol and bitterness (thus providing a home for very strong lagers). Any fruitiness is due to Munich and other specialty malts, not yeast-derived esters developed during fermentation.
Ingredients: Pils and/or Vienna malt for pale versions (with some Munich), Munich and Vienna malts for darker ones and occasionally a tiny bit of darker color malts (such as Carafa). Noble hops. Water hardness varies from soft to moderately carbonate. Clean lager yeast. Decoction mashing is traditional.
Commercial Examples: Paulaner Salvator, Ayinger Celebrator, Spaten Optimator, Tucher Bajuvator, Augustiner Maximator, Weihenstephaner Korbinian, Weltenburger Kloster Asam-Bock, EKU 28, Eggenberg Urbock 23°, Samichlaus, Bell's Consecrator, Moretti La Rossa


[edit] Eisbock

5D. Eisbock Vital Statistics
BJCP Style Guideline Definition (2004)
IBUs: 25-35+ SRM: 18-30+ OG: 1.078-1.020+ FG: 1.020-1.035+ ABV: 9-14+
Aroma: Dominated by a balance of rich, intense malt and a definite alcohol presence. No hop aroma. No diacetyl. May have significant fruity esters, particularly those reminiscent of plum, prune or grape. Alcohol aromas should not be harsh or solventy.
Appearance: Deep copper to dark brown in color, often with attractive ruby highlights. Lagering should provide good clarity. Head retention may be impaired by higher-than-average alcohol content and low carbonation. Pronounced legs are often evident.
Flavor: Dominated by a balance of rich, intense malt and a definite alcohol presence. No hop aroma. No diacetyl. May have significant fruity esters, particularly those reminiscent of plum, prune or grape. Alcohol aromas should not be harsh or solventy.
Mouthfeel: Full to very full bodied. Low carbonation. Significant alcohol warmth without sharp hotness. Very smooth without harsh edges from alcohol, bitterness, fusels, or other concentrated flavors.
Overall Impression: Dominated by a balance of rich, intense malt and a definite alcohol presence. No hop aroma. No diacetyl. May have significant fruity esters, particularly those reminiscent of plum, prune or grape. Alcohol aromas should not be harsh or solventy.
History: A traditional Kulmbach specialty brewed by freezing a doppelbock and removing the ice to concentrate the flavor and alcohol content (as well as any defects).
Comments: Eisbocks are not simply stronger doppelbocks; the name refers to the process of freezing and concentrating the beer. Some doppelbocks are stronger than Eisbocks. Extended lagering is often needed post-freezing to smooth the alcohol and enhance the malt and alcohol balance. Any fruitiness is due to Munich and other specialty malts, not yeast-derived esters developed during fermentation.
Ingredients: Same as doppelbock. Commercial eisbocks are generally concentrated anywhere from 7% to 33% (by volume).
Commercial Examples: Kulmbacher Reichelbräu Eisbock, Eggenberg Urbock Dunkel Eisbock, Niagara Eisbock, Southampton Eisbock

[edit] GABF Style Listings

[edit] Traditional German Style Bock

34A. Traditional German Style Bock
GABF Style Listing (2007)
Traditional bocks are made with all malt and are strong, malty, medium- to full-bodied, bottom-fermented beers with moderate hop bitterness that should increase proportionately with the starting gravity. Hop flavor should be low and hop aroma should be very low. Bocks can range in color from deep copper to dark brown. Fruity esters should be minimal.
Original Gravity (ºPlato): 1.066-1.074 (16.5-18 ºPlato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (ºPlato): 1.018-1.024 (4.5-6 ºPlato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume): 5-6% (6.3-7.5%)
Bitterness (IBU): 20-30
Color SRM (EBC): 20-30 (40-60 EBC)


[edit] German Style Heller Bock/Maibock

34B. German Style Heller Bock/Maibock
GABF Style Listing (2007)
The German word helle means light colored, and as such, a heller Bock is light straw to deep golden in color. Maibocks are also light-colored bocks. The malty character should come through in the aroma and flavor. Body is medium to full. Hop bitterness should be low, while noble-type hop aroma and flavor may be at low to medium levels. Bitterness increases with gravity. Fruity esters may be perceived at low levels. Diacetyl levels should be very low. Chill haze should not be perceived.
Original Gravity (ºPlato): 1.066-1.074 (16.5-18.5 ºPlato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (ºPlato): 1.012-1.020 (3 -5 ºPlato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume): 5-6.4% (6-8%)
Bitterness (IBU): 20-38
Color SRM (EBC): 4-10 (8-20 EBC)


[edit] German Style Strong Doppelbock

35A. German Style Strong Doppelbock
GABF Style Listing (2007)
Malty sweetness is dominant but should not be cloying. Malt character is more reminiscent of fresh and lightly toasted Munich-style malt; more so than caramel or toffee malt character. Some elements of caramel and toffee can be evident and contribute to complexity, but the predominant malt character is an expression of toasted barley malt. Doppelbocks are full bodied and deep amber to dark brown in color. Astringency from roast malts is absent. Alcoholic strength is high, and hop rates increase with gravity. Hop bitterness and flavor should be low and hop aroma absent. Fruity esters are commonly perceived but at low to moderate levels.
Original Gravity (ºPlato): 1.074-1.080 (18-19.5 ºPlato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (ºPlato): 1.014-1.020 (3.5-5 ºPlato)
Alcohol by Weight (Volume): 5.2-6.2% (6.5-8%)
Bitterness (IBU): 17-27
Color SRM (EBC): 12-30 (24-60 EBC)


[edit] German Style Strong Eisbock

35B. German Style Strong Eisbock
GABF Style Listing (2007)
A stronger version of Doppelbock. Malt character can be very sweet. The body is very full and deep copper to almost black in color. Alcoholic strength is very high. Hop bitterness is subdued. Hop flavor and aroma are absent. Fruity esters may be evident but not overpowering. Typically these beers are brewed by freezing a Doppelbock and removing resulting ice to increase alcohol content.
Original Gravity (ºPlato): 1.092-1.116 (22-27 ºPlato)
Apparent Extract/Final Gravity (ºPlato): N/A
Alcohol by Weight (Volume): 6.8-11.3% (8.6-14.4%)
Bitterness (IBU): 26-33
Color SRM (EBC): 18-50 (36-100 EBC)

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