1) Skunking only comes from light acting on the hops, so no worries there as long as you keep them in the dark. I would warm them up into the 70's, you'll be fine. However you probably won't get there by the 4th
2)Yes protein is one of the major contributing factors to head retention iirc. If you poke around there are loads of threads on the subject. If your glass is soapy you'll lose the head too. Never use JetDry in the washer, it is reputed to wipe out head retention. Yes, carbonation does come into play, a low carbonated beer will rarely have any head unless you force-foam it with a tap or something to that effect (kind of like whipping it). But carbonation alone will not produce a head, you need the stuff in your beer to begin with for the carbonation to affect and give you said head.