Skunky or cat-musk aromas in beer are caused by photochemical reactions of the isomerized hop compounds. The wavelengths of light that cause the skunky smell are the blue wavelengths and the ultraviolet. Brown glass bottles effectively screen out these wavelengths, but green bottles do not. Skunkiness will result in beers if the beer is left in direct sunlight or stored under fluorescent lights as in supermarkets.
The key word is isomerized. This is the process the alpha acids go through during the boil. Fresh hops don't skunk, but they do oxidize. Leaving a glass of ale out in direct sunlight can skunk it in 15 minutes. One of the reasons it is so fast, is the skunk scent is detectable in the parts per billion range.
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