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Old 09-18-2013, 06:13 PM   #1
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Default All Grain Brewing Process in 20 Simple Steps

Original Post has been edited many times with input consensus
I have seen requests for the All Grain Brewing Process in a simple beginners format for those interested in making the switch or starting out. The process is partially calculated, opinionated, and sometimes overwhelming for someone trying to gauge interest. You will never know until you attempt, fail, and learn. The process below uses fly sparging (Steps 6. - 8.), batch sparging or BIAB are another option for rinsing grains (suggested link needed) EDIT:This guide is about pure process. I would encourage more research on cleaning, calculations, equipment and bottling/kegging (after fermentation options) because this is not a one size fits all process.

Disclaimer: I am not affiliated with a Brewing Company, it is just a username.

Equipment:
- 6+ Gallon Boil Pot with spigot [Recommend using 8+ to prevent boil overs, Stainless Steel is best but more $, aluminum requires prep (boil water in pot to create grayish fade aka oxide layer before use)]
- 10 Gallon Cooler Assembled Mash Tun
- 5 Gallon Cooler with spigot (Recommended for fly sparging only)
- 6/6.5 Gallon Glass Carboy (better bottle or bucket is a cheaper option)
- Carboy Rubber Stopper
- Immersion Wort Chiller
- 2 Food Grade Hose Line
- Electric Thermometer
- Hydrometer

Ingredients (Recipe will provide amounts):
-Grains [buy crushed/milled grains from LHBS and store airtight (Recommend not online)]
-Hops
-Yeast

Basically (Clean > Heat Water > Mash > Sparge > Boil > Hops > Ferment > Bottle/Keg)

#F = # of Degrees Fahrenheit
LHBS = Local Home Brew Store

1. Clean EVERYTHING that might come in contact with home brew
2. Heat the calculated amount of strike water to +15 degrees above the calculated strike water temperature (Optional: If chemical make up of water is unknown, use spring water)
3. Transfer Strike Water in to the Mash Tun (Research mash water PH or Optional: Add 5.2 PH Stabilizer to strike water to improve beginners efficiency)
4. Once water has cooled to the calculated strike water temperature (usually between 150F to 154F but be precise), Add grains to strike water mash tun while stirring water
5. Seal the cooler mash tun shut and allow grains to mash for the calculated duration (usually 60 minutes)
6. Heat calculated Fly Sparge Water to 185F
7. Transfer Fly Sparge Water to 5 Gallon Cooler and allow to the water to cool to just above 170F before sealing the cooler shut
8. Slowly Drain mashed water (or "Wort") to clean pitcher(Optional: sanitze as well) and add back to the mash tun cooler, repeat until the mash tun drains grain free
9a. Transfer the Wort back in to the Boil Pot slowly with as little agitation as possible (slower = better efficiency)
9b. While mash tun drains, Add 170F fly sparge water to the mash tun keeping the water level 2 inches above the grain level until empty
10. Heat Wort to a rolling boil (not full bubbling boil)
11. Add Hops to the boiling wort at the recipe's specified hop schedule time (monitor heat source and wort temp level to maintain boil but avoid boil over) (At the last 15 minutes of boil, evaluate final boil wort volume, if: LOW add spring water; HIGH increase temp; Optional: Add Irish Moss to improve beginners clarity at 15min), At the last 10 minutes of boil, Insert wort chiller in to the wort to disinfect
12. Remove boil pot from heat source and Activate wort chiller to begin cooling wort to under 70F
13. While wort is chilling, Sanitize Carboy, Food Grade Hose Lines, and Carboy Rubber Stopper
14. Transfer wort to carboy using food grade hose line, one side connected to the spigot of the boil pot, the other placed just past the opening of the carboy so the wort is splashing in to the carboy (aeration); be sure to take a hydrometer reading of the Wort for Original Gravity (OG)
15. Add calculated amount of yeast cells to the wort in the carboy and seal the top of the carboy with rubber stopper
16. Insert a food grade hose line in to the rubber stopper and put the other end in a cup of sanitize water to create a blow-off tube
17. Cover carboy with towels to keep safe from light
18. Ferment for 10-21 days (bubbling is 60+ seconds appart) and take hydrometer reading for Final Gravity (FG) (should be around 1.010 for completion)
19. Keg or Bottle your homebrew and allow 2 weeks to age (research equipment and process while beer ferments)
20. Drink your home brew!

Mash and Sparge Water Calculator:
http://www.brew365.com/mash_sparge_water_calculator.php
Yeast Pitching Calculator:
http://www.mrmalty.com/calc/calc.html
Alcohol By Volume (ABV) Calculator:
http://www.brewersfriend.com/abv-calculator/
How to Make a Yeast Starter
http://www.homebrewtalk.com/f39/how-...ctorial-76101/
Mash and Balance Value Calculator
http://www.tc.umn.edu/~rohw0009/home...tor/bvcalc.htm
Grain Substitution Chart
http://www.brew.is/files/malt.html

Suggested Updrades:
-Yeast Starter
-False Bottom for Mash Tun
-Stir Plate
-Stainless Steel Spigots
-Kegging Equipment
-Aeration Kit/Stone

Cheers

Printable PDF:


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On Tap for the Winter:
Keg 1: Edwort's Apfelwein
Keg 2: Alpine Duet IPA Clone
Keg 3: Strong West Coast IPA
Planning for the Spring:
Fermenter 1: Strong Scotch Ale
Fermenter 2: Empty
Fermenter 3: Empty
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Old 09-18-2013, 06:16 PM   #2
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Here is a Pale Ale Recipe to try out by referencing to the instructions above.

Brew Type: All Grain
Style: Pale Ale
Brew Time: 4 - 5 weeks

Shopping list:
Malt:
14 lbs Pale Ale (2 Row)
11 oz (3/4lbs-1oz) caramel malt (60L)
Hops:
1 oz Chinook
3 oz Cascade
1 oz Citra
Yeast:
White Labs WLP001 or Wyeast 1056 American Ales

Schedule:
Strike Water 4.8 gallons at 165F
Mash at 152F for 60 minutes
Fly Sparge 4.5 gallons at 170F
Boil Time 60 minutes
1 oz Chinook at 60 minutes
2 oz Cascade at 15 minutes
1 oz Cascade at 5 minutes
1 oz Citra at 5 minutes
Ferment in carboy at 68F for 2 - 3 weeks
Keg at 10 PSI for 2 weeks or Bottle


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On Tap for the Winter:
Keg 1: Edwort's Apfelwein
Keg 2: Alpine Duet IPA Clone
Keg 3: Strong West Coast IPA
Planning for the Spring:
Fermenter 1: Strong Scotch Ale
Fermenter 2: Empty
Fermenter 3: Empty
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Old 09-18-2013, 06:29 PM   #3
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2. Only need to sanitize post boil equipment.

3. No need to boil strike water

4. pH stabilizer is a waste of money

5. You must account for the temperature the grain will drop your strike water. The water in the tun should be stable at 160+ before you add the grain. It will drop to 150-155 degrees

7. No need to boil sparge water

8. Sparge water should be in the 180+ range to bring the bed to 165-170

9. No need to sanitize pre boil

10a. Hot side aeration is a homebrew myth.

10b. OG is the term for post boil wort gravity

13. Bring your wort to pitch temperature or below with your chiller. (60-70 degree range)

14. Aeration is good at transfer to fermenter
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Old 09-18-2013, 06:34 PM   #4
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Quote:
Originally Posted by AnOldUR View Post
2. Only need to sanitize post boil equipment.

3. No need to boil strike water

4. pH stabilizer is a waste of money

5. You must account for the the temperature the grain will drop your strike water. The water should be about 160 before you add the grain. It will drop to 150-155 degrees

7. No need to boil sparge water

8. Sparge water should be in the 180+ range to bring the bed to 165-170

9. No need to sanitize pre boil

10a. Hot side aeration is a homebrew myth.

10b. OG is the term for post boil wort gravity

13. Bring your wort to pitch temperature or below with your chiller. (60-70 degree range)

14. Aeration is good at transfer

18. Airlock activity is not necessarily an indication for fermentation. The FG depends on the style you're brewing.

19. Proper carbonation rates and time are dependent on the style you're brewing.
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Old 09-18-2013, 06:52 PM   #5
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Step 0 - Find out if your water supply contains chloramines. If it does, either use campden tablets to neutralize the chloramines or use bottled water. Your beer will taste horrible otherwise.

Step 14 is wrong. You want lots of agitation to the boiled wort. You have to re-introduce oxygen to the wort. Yeast needs oxygen to grow right. Take your buckets or carboys and shake them for a good 90 seconds to re-oxygenate the wort after boiling.

Step 17.5 - Clean everything before it gets all crusty. Will save a lot of time on the next brew day.

Step 18. Ferment for 10-21 days in a carefully controlled temperature environment. Get a thermo sticker for your fermentation vessel and make sure the vessel doesn't come close to exceeding the recommended fermentation temps. Most yeasts ferment well at around 62° F, but you should read up on the yeast that you choose. Take a hydrometer reading and then another one three days later. If the numbers are the same (usually around 1.010) then fermentation is complete. Bubbles don't mean anything. Don't trust them.
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Old 09-18-2013, 06:53 PM   #6
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Quote:
2. Only need to sanitize post boil equipment.
Extra 5 minutes is worth it to me but I will make that optional
Quote:
3. No need to boil strike water
Boil/Heat whatever, just get it to the temp you want but I'll clarify
*Note, sometimes if I have the time I boil to sanitze the water
Quote:
4. pH stabilizer is a waste of money
Opinionated. I don't use it but suggest it for beginners to help with efficiency
Quote:
5. You must account for the temperature the grain will drop your strike water
I wrote calculated and put a calculator at the bottom to do so
Quote:
18. Airlock activity is not necessarily an indication for fermentation. The FG depends on the style you're brewing.
hence I noted take a hydrometer
Quote:
19. Proper carbonation rates and time are dependent on the style you're brewing.
These instructions are for beginners just starting or considering All Grain. They do not have a style yet.

To anyone trying to take in all of this information, the above is what happens when you are doing your research. Brewing is an opinionated science. Follow the instructions and you'll make good craft beer. After about 10 batches start customizing and calculating more to become closer to a nano brewery.
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On Tap for the Winter:
Keg 1: Edwort's Apfelwein
Keg 2: Alpine Duet IPA Clone
Keg 3: Strong West Coast IPA
Planning for the Spring:
Fermenter 1: Strong Scotch Ale
Fermenter 2: Empty
Fermenter 3: Empty
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Old 09-18-2013, 07:01 PM   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MorrisBrewingCo View Post
1. Clean everything that might come in contact with home brew
2. Sanitize everything that might come in contact with home brew
3. Boil the calculated amount of strike water to +15 degrees above the calculated strike water temperature
4. Transfer Strike Water in to the Mash Tun (Optional: Add 5.2 PH Stabilizer to strike water)
5. Once water has cooled to the calculated strike water temperature (usually about 150F to 154F), Add grains to strike water mash tun while stirring water
6. Seal the cooler mash tun shut and allow grains to mash for the calculated duration (usually 60 minutes)
7. Boil calculated Fly Sparge Water to 185F
8. Transfer Fly Sparge Water to 5 Gallon Cooler and allow to the water to cool to just above 170F before sealing the cooler shut
9. Slowly Drain mashed water (or "Wort") to a sanitzed pitcher and add back to the mash tun cooler, repeat until the mash tun drains grain free
10a. Transfer the wort back in to the Boil Pot with as little agitation as possible
10b. While mash tun drains, Add 170F fly sparge water to the mash tun keeping the water level just above the grain level until empty
11. Heat wort to a rolling boil (not full bubbling boil)
12. Add Hops to the boiling wort (monitor heat source level to maintain boil but avoid boil over) at the time specified in the recipe’s hop schedule, Insert wort chiller in to the wort in the boil pot during the last 5 minutes to disinfect (Optional: Add Irish Moss at the last 15 minutes of boil)
13. Remove boil pot from heat source and Activate wort chiller to begin cooling wort to under 95F
14. Transfer wort to carboy using food grade hose line with as little agitation as possible and take a hydometer reading of wort before boil for Original Gravity (OG)
15. Add the desire amount of yeast cells to the wort in the carboy and seal the top of the carboy with rubber stopper
16. Insert a food grade hose line in to the rubber stopper and put the other end in a cup of sanitize water to create a blow-off tube
17. Cover carboy with towels to keep safe from light
18. Ferment for 10-21 days (bubbling is 60+ seconds appart) and take hydrometer reading for Final Gravity (FG) (should be around 1.010)
19. Keg or Bottle your homebrew and allow 2 weeks to age (research equipment and process while beer ferments)
20. Drink your home brew!

Mash and Sparge Water Calculator:
http://www.brew365.com/mash_sparge_water_calculator.php
Yeast Pitching Calculator:
http://www.mrmalty.com/calc/calc.html
Alcohol By Volume (ABV) Calculator:
http://www.brewersfriend.com/abv-calculator/
I'll only comment on some of the points:

2. You don't need to sanitize anything that comes in to contact to the water or wort prior to the boil.

4. pH stabilizer is crap.

5. The strike temperature should be calculated precisely (you gave a rather large range). The link you provided at brew365 gives the right calculation. You need to input the weight of the grains, ambient temp (grain temp), target mash temp, etc. This gives you PRECISE control over the mash temp, which can have a dramatic effect on the resulting beer. You oversimplified to say the strike temp should be between 150-154. That's pretty low, and way too low for a large beer that you want to mash high. Be precise, use a calculator.

7. You can't boil something at 185F. (at normal atmospheric pressure) Yes, it's a grammar thing, but let's use the right words. You're HEATING to 185F, not boiling.

12. To ensure that nasties on the chiller are boiled away, it should be added with at least 10 minutes remaining in the boil, not 5.

13. Why 95F? That's WAY TOO HIGH to pitch the yeast, yet nowhere else do you talk about proper pitching temps. As it reads, it looks like your advocating pitching as high as 95F - which is a good way to kill all your yeast.

Also, nowhere do you mention aeration of the wort prior to pitching. This is a critical step. Even shaking the fermentor is better than nothing.

14. OG is not measured before the boil. It's measured after the boil and after cooling, just before pitching.

16. Blow off tubes aren't always needed. Optional step.

17. Why?

18. Bubble intervals are NEVER a reliable way to determine if a fermentation is complete. ONLY a series of FG readings taken over multiple days can tell you if the fermentation is done.

19. 2 weeks is a nice starting point for bottle conditioning, but it's hardly universal. For many bigger beers, 2 weeks is just the start. For a wheat or IPA, two weeks is fine. In other words, conditioning time depends on the style.



So other than all that, good guide.
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Old 09-18-2013, 07:24 PM   #8
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Quote:
5. The strike temperature should be calculated precisely....
This guide is about process not calculations. There are many other forums that go in depth on this
Quote:
7. ....You're HEATING to 185F, not boiling.
Just get it there, whatever,
Quote:
12. ...should be added with at least 10 minutes remaining in the boil, not 5.
Corrected
Quote:
13. 95F - which is a good way to kill all your yeast.
Corrected after more research
Quote:
Also, nowhere do you mention aeration of the wort prior to pitching.
Suggest something to add, don't just point out its missing
Quote:
14. OG is not measured before the boil
Already corrected that mistake
Quote:
16. Blow off tubes aren't always needed. Optional step.
True, but they always work, one blow off inside and you'll never go back which is likely for a beginner that overpitched
Quote:
17. Why?
10 minutes of sunlight and I've read even florescent light causes skunk flavors
Quote:
18. Bubble intervals are NEVER a reliable way to determine if a fermentation is complete. ONLY a series of FG readings taken over multiple days can tell you if the fermentation is done.
I noted to take an FG reading and I assume a beginner will oxidize their beer fooling around to much, its better to eyeball calrity when first starting. if the FG reading is way off when first opened, continue fermenting. I will make note tho
Quote:
19. 2 weeks is a nice starting point for bottle conditioning, but it's hardly universal.
Aware but again this just making a general guideline for beginners to work off of, I will provide more info

I welcome comments and suggestions to perfect this easy guide but keep it mind it is for first time brewers. Things like alkalinity, yeast starters, and dry hopping come later.
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On Tap for the Winter:
Keg 1: Edwort's Apfelwein
Keg 2: Alpine Duet IPA Clone
Keg 3: Strong West Coast IPA
Planning for the Spring:
Fermenter 1: Strong Scotch Ale
Fermenter 2: Empty
Fermenter 3: Empty
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Old 09-18-2013, 07:43 PM   #9
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MorrisBrewingCo View Post
I make homemade bread and yeast works best at 90-100F. I will look more in to this one
Please do. We're not making bread, we're fermenting beer. Not all ale yeast are created equal, let alone lager, bread, etc. I'm all for helping the newbies out with generalized information... but there is a difference between general and flat out wrong.


Quote:
Originally Posted by MorrisBrewingCo View Post
10 minutes of sunlight or florescent light and cause skunk flavors
Care to share proof of this? If that's the case, then I guess everyone who brews outside, or transfers beer with their lights on has skunked beer.

I understand what you're trying to do and it is good. Brewing is most certainly an opinionated experience, and everyone can do things differently and turn out great beer. However, these points are not opinions, they are falsified pieces of information being portrayed as facts, and should be corrected.
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Old 09-18-2013, 08:03 PM   #10
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Quote:
Originally Posted by MorrisBrewingCo View Post
Extra 5 minutes is worth it and and you would leave grain residue from previous brew in mash tun?

Boil/Heat whatever, just get it to the temp you want
*Note, sometimes if I have the time I boil to sanitze the water

Opinionated. I don't use it but suggest it for beginners to help with efficiency

I don't know how many time I wrote calculated and put a calculator at the bottom to do so


hince i noted take a hydrometer

These instructions are for beginners just starting or considering All Grain. They do not have a style yet.

To anyone trying to take in all of this information, the above is what happens when you are doing your research. Brewing is an opinionated science. Follow the instructions and you'll make good craft beer. After about 10 batches start customizing and calculating more to become closer to a nano brewery.
It's silly to sanitize a mashtun! Wash it out on brewday, so it's clean. Then put it away. On brewday, use it for brewing. Grain is crawling with lactobacillus- so you wouldn't do any good by sanitizing it and then putting grain in it anyway! So, you'd have to sanitize the grain, before putting it in your sanitized mashtun for it to even be close to helpful.

No need to sanitize water- it's sanitary, and then it's in your boil kettle.

Cool the wort to the proper fermentation temperature before pitching the yeast- generally 65 degrees or so for ales, for 50 or so for lagers.

PH "stabilizer" is a waste of money, doesn't improve efficiency, and usually has a negative flavor impact- plus it doesn't stabilize the pH anyway! (Not my opinion- this is fact.)

It's appreciated that you put together some steps, but frankly some aren't correct or needed. Saying that doesn't make me "opinionated" (which seems to describe people who don't agree with you, rather than being opinionated).

Making more steps than is necessary creates more stress and anxiety for a new brewer than keeping it simple would.


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