Yeah, that's about double the sugar you'd need in that size batch for an ale. Yeast cells are typically in the 3-4 micron range (some up to 40 microns) so yes you can potentially filter out most, if not all, of the yeast.
I'm curious to know what 1 micron filter you used to filter your beer. Most beer filters rely on CO2 pressure to force the beer through a filter plate, and if that's the case, why not use CO2 to carbonate the beer in favor of priming sugar?
The main issue as outlined is you have twice as much priming sugar in your beer as you need.