Has this wine been in your refrigerator or some place where it was chilled for a while? If so, then the fine sediment might be wine diamonds. Wine diamonds are crystals of tartaric acid that fall out of solution when the liquid (wine) is cooled. The colder temperatures affects the wine's ability to hold some of the dissolved acid and the acid crystallizes and settles at the bottom.
The smaller pieces-- are they crystals?
THE GOOD NEWS IS THIS-- your wine is drinkable regardless of what settled at the bottom after it was bottled.