most do not prime with sugar...then you needn't worry about sediment being dispensed in the first few draws. you can if you want, but you don't really need to.
you can also dry hop (usually w/ whole hops in a bag) in the keg too...the IPA guys dig this.
most of us force carb for a week at 12psi once the keg has been chilled.
you would still let it age at room temp a little while, else you end up drinking green beer from the keg that is well carb'd.
you can also rapidly force carb at higher psi, when necessary. definitely chill before you force carb...cooler liquid absorbs CO2 more readily.
Primary: English Mild
On tap: Pale Ale, Lancelot's Wheat, English Brown Ale, Steam Beer, HoovNuts IPA
Bottled: MOAM, Braggot, Raspberry Melomel, Merlot, Apfelwein, Pyment, Sweet mead, Cabernet
Gal in 2009: 27, Gal in 2010: 34, Gal in 2011: 13, Gal in 2012: 10