Germans are the masters of malt- the classic german styles derive from major differences in malts, techniques, malting, and mashing.
The Belgians are know for their yeast wizardry- classic belgian styles typically have simple grain bills and easy recipes, with the real character coming from the amazing yeasts Belgium is known for- a huge variety of strains which cover an enormous span of flavors and fermentation profiles.
American brewers make beers with awesome control over unique hops varieties. What's the difference between an english brown ale and an american? Big Hops aroma and flavor. British IPA and american? Hops again. American hops are fruitier and more dynamic in character, with wide ranges of flavors from dank, piney and citrusy to fruity, floral and minty. American beers tend to differentiate themselves from other contemporaries by their manipulation of hops.
I can't be arsed to keep up this list of what's in the fermenters, but hey, check out the cool brewery I own!
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