I'm confused how this happened. You started a siphon, it sucked back into the fermentation bucket (aka, the siphon didn't hold and failed) and you have bubbles as much as a rolling boil? That sounds excessive, unless you're blowing into the end of the siphon tube
I've had this happen before also, but not to the extent you're explaining (if you're not exaggerating).
From my understanding it takes a lot of oxygen to actually ruin a beer if this isn't just C02 bubbling out of solution. The only thing you can do is wait and see what happens, as oxygenated off-flavors appear sometime down the road and wouldn't necessarily be immediately apparent after consuming you're first few brews.
I can't see how you have it set up, but you might want to set the fermentation bucket higher up and use a slightly longer hose so gravity keeps the beer down, thus preventing the suck back or just use a bottling bucket.