You're very welcome. Here's a bit more ... another novel ... too much time on my hands today ...
Originally Posted by gammonite
Okay, I have managed to clarify this batch of cider by filtering it. I was worried about the flavour being stripped out like some people warn. I noticed no difference and am very pleased with the clarity. ... My question, is: how much sugar and how much and what type of yeast?
Ultra filtration can remove tannins but I think it is more a consideration with the use of fining agents.
For the sugar ...
For carbonating, you could use priming tabs (sugar tablets) for ease of use - available at the brewers supply ... or for sugar the typical measure I think most use is about ¾ to 1 cup sugar to 5 gallons wort/must.
While I’m at it ... just for the hell of it ...
Doing it the technical way though means knowing about how many “volumes” of CO2 your beverage should properly have (i.e. ale verses lager verses stout verses cider etc), and then knowing how much CO2 is already in the wort or must. The amount of CO2 already absorbed has to do with the temperature during ferment while all that CO2 was bubbling around.
Compared to beer ... the *suggested* volume of CO2 for cider is kinda all over the map ... from 1.0 to 3.5.
(here’s a good list for some suggested volumes of C02 ... http://tinyurl.com/3vl9kg3
I’d say, shooting almost right up the middle would be about 2.4 ... so ...
If your fermentation was done at, say, 70*f, you should have about .85 of a volume of CO2 in it already (provided you have not off-gassed it in some way).
Sooo ... 2.4 - .85 leaves a CO2 shortfall of 1.55.
To get 1.55 volumes into your cider by adding priming sugar ... 1/2oz of sucrose (cane or beet sugar) per gallon will ferment to give 1 volume of CO2 ... so, 1.55 x ½ oz = about .775 oz sugar which is about 4.65 teaspoons per gallon or 3.875 ounces for 5 gallons.
So if there’s 6tea per oz then 3.875x6 = 23.25 teaspoons per 5 gallons, or just very slightly under half a cup (0.484 cup).
Personally, I like the fizz ... I’d just go with the standard ¾ cup per 5 gallons and see what happens. If you are planning to refrigerate or pasteurize the bottles to stop the yeast once they are up to pressure you should be fine either way even if you do overprime a bit.
As far as the yeast ...
If you do have to add more yeast to prime, I'd typically use the same yeast as I’d used in the ferment. Although in a difficult environment ... low temp, high alcohol, low pH etc ... I might select a yeast based on that too.
For cider, I’d think the same yeast would be fine.
Another exception might be if I also intended to bottle pasteurize the wine (with hot water), and was concerned about flavor change or issues with pectin, and my fermenting yeast had been something that was somewhat more heat tolerant like Wyeast 3267 Bordeaux, Lalvin EC-1118, or Red Star Premier Cuvee etc ... in which case, I’d use something with a little less temperature tolerance (after trying to fine-out or remove the fermenting yeast from suspension as possible). But if you used an ale yeast (or somesuch) you should be good to go. In an ale yeast, Nottingham is less heat tolerant than, for instance, Windsor ... and Windsor a bit less heat tolerant than most wine yeasts. Pasteurization concerns though are probably an odd exception though.