Ian Rankin is "the UK's number 1 bestselling crime author". His detective character "Rebus" lives and works in Edinburgh. Rebus is very partial to a pint of Caledonian Deuchars' IPA
(and so am I). the brewery is based in Edinburgh and has a huge range on offer as you'll see from their website
. The website has a pub finder and last time I looked there were over 50 pubs in Edinburgh selling their beers.
Real Ale has never been particularly popular in Scotland (IMHO), but it's picking up.
Get a Rebus novel, it'll help you get into the mindset of modern Edinburgh and most of the places/pubs in the book are real.
Also, try and find some beers from some of the new Scottish Micros, some are really good.
If you could invest a few dollars and have an iPhone, then the UK CAMRA Good Beer Guide is available on the iTunes store. It lists 25 good pubs in Edinburgh, gives details about the beers, food accomodation etc. and with its new mapping feature can take you straight to the nearest good beer pub.
Caveat - when CAMRA talk about Good Beer they mean, almost exclusively, British Live Cask Ales.
There's also a few Wetherspoons
pubs in Edinburgh, busy, noisy but usually good value with a wide range of beers.