The stuff on the sides of the carboy is dried kraeusen. The white "islands" floating on the beer are just spots where CO2 is bubbling up from the yeast/trub sediment. Mold in a sealed fermentor is very rare.
Yup, at least usually. But there is always some CO2 coming out of solution, so it's not uncommon to see some of these popping up from time to time. You can also get little yeast rafts that'll stay at the surface.