Well, since this is your first batch, you have a couple of things going for you. First, you'll be likely to bottle and drink it as fast as possible (as we all did with our first batch) and second, you probably haven't experienced several "good" batches of homebrew. This is good because you are less likely to notice off flavors caused by oxidation.
As far as siphoning, don't worry about picking up a little bit of the trub from the primary. It will settle out in the secondary. Also, since you did over-aerate this batch, I would get it bottled as soon as possible. It will be cloudier, but the carbonation will help drive off the O2 you introduced into the beer. Then have a few buddies over in a couple of weeks and drink as much as possible - they'll be impressed even if it did taste like cardboard. In the meantime, get a new batch going and try not to splash around too much this time
I make mistakes every time I brew, but I learn from them - that just makes susequent batches increasingly better.