Finally found some data in "Brewing: Science and Practice."
This is pretty helpful information for formulating mash schedules. Unfortunately, it only applies to a single malt, and a non-modern one at that (as the reference is from 1947).
One interesting thing to note is that, even with a 1947 malt, mashing at 158 degrees for 30 minutes gives you nearly the same extract % and fermentability as mashing for 180 minutes. However, mashing at 149 degrees gives nearly the same extract % at 30 and 120 minutes, but the fermentability of the wort DOES increase significantly.
All of this data is in correspondence with the well-known principles of mashing, but it helps quantify these principles. The authors did not mention the specific times at which denaturation occurred, other than to mention that after 2 hours at 150 degrees, no enzyme activity was still occuring.