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02-12-2016 6:36 PM

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  • Retired
  • Baroque, early Classical
  • Male
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  • McLean/Ogden
  • Virginia/Quebec


  • Posted in thread: Liquid inside my hydrometer?? on 02-12-2016 at 03:40 AM
    It was doubtless there when it left the factory.

  • Posted in thread: Liquid inside my hydrometer?? on 02-11-2016 at 07:46 PM
    ....so there is certainly no crack in it...I'm baffled as to how it got in there?? There has
    too be. How else would that much water have gotten in there.My wife is a biomedical engineer
    (aka smarter ...

  • Posted in thread: Phosphoric acid drawbacks? on 02-11-2016 at 02:49 PM
    Interesting. Phosphoric acid is very popular this side of the pond as we don't have AMS/CRS. I
    wonder if people over here are seeing this. I can explain why it shouldn't happen but I can't
    explain why...

  • Posted in thread: Help With Water Profile (IPA) on 02-11-2016 at 02:34 PM
    OK. The notable thing about this water is the high level of sodium chloride. This is high
    enough that you are probably effectively blocked from using calcium chloride as a calcium
    source and you will ...

  • Posted in thread: RO Filter and Water Analysis Questions on 02-11-2016 at 02:27 PM
    Pure water in equilibrium with 0.0003 atm partial pressure of CO2 will be at pH 5.64 but RO
    water with even a tiny amount of bicarbonate in it will be at appreciably higher pH. For
    example, 1.5 mg/L b...

  • Posted in thread: Bohemian Pilsner Water Profile on 02-11-2016 at 01:46 PM
    Can someone review and provide some insight as to what is best to add to get the profile closet
    to what I need?I appreciate the help.As what is best to add is what gives you the beer you like
    best the...

  • Posted in thread: Help With Water Profile Entries - Beersmith / Bru'n Water on 02-11-2016 at 01:34 PM
    Alkalinity was 20 ppm as CaCO3 (because alkalinity is in the same units as Residual
    Alkalinity). Twenty ppm as CaCO3 means that the analyst dded 20/50 = 0.4 mEq of acid to each
    liter of the water in o...

  • Posted in thread: Help With Water Profile Entries - Beersmith / Bru'n Water on 02-11-2016 at 05:12 AM
    The fundamental water parameter is alkalinity, not bicarbonate. If bicarbonate is given then
    the pH must also be specified to the program so that it can figure out the alkalinity which is
    what it need...

  • Posted in thread: Phosphoric acid drawbacks? on 02-11-2016 at 05:04 AM
    Beerstone is a deposit of calcium oxalate embedded in a protein matrix. The matrix needs to be
    oxidized and the pH lowered to dissolve the precipitate. This is traditionally done with a mix
    of nitric ...

  • Posted in thread: Help With Water Profile (IPA) on 02-10-2016 at 08:04 PM
    Your water certainly doesn't contain 63 ppm CaCO3. Is that the alkalinity "as CaCO3"?

February 8, 2014  •  08:08 AM
Yeast starters generally need to be stepped up to a size appropriate for 10 gal batch pitching. But I've been researching the reason for this. It seems to me, that if the yeast needs can be anticipated and met for the whole starter size, then this step-up procedure could be eliminated. The most obvious delta (to me) across the fermentation is pH. Internally, yeast maintain pH at 5.0-5.8. Dissolved CO2, excreted acids, and cell H+ transport continously increase H+ concentration, decreasing pH. There needs to be a pH delta across the cell wall for maltose influx. So this is why yeast act to decrease pH in external medium. But they don't appear to be able to shut that process off (at least, completely) and so can acidify mediums that aren't well buffered right down and out of their operating window. Looks like best pH is mid-4's to 5.0 or so. Now, pitching a starter with too little yeast means that they can't quickly acidify the wort down to optimum pH levels. And then, even if they can, such a large amount of growth causes over-acidificaiton and floccing before full attenuation. Since this is a starter and we intend to decant the 'beer' before pitching, can't we introduce a buffer into the wort before fermentation? The buffer would hold pH around 4.5-5.0. The yeast would be presented with optimum pH from start to finish, ensuring full attenuation with any size starter, with any size innoculation. What think ye? Any recommendations for acid-salt-alkaline combinations for buffers?