Sure. Golden syrup is a byproduct of sugar production.
It's an invert sugar (glucose and fructose, like honey, as opposed to the sucrose found in regular sugars) and can be used as a fairly direct substitute for corn syrup, honey, or simple syrup (some slight ratio adjustments are required for each).
It has a very slightly richer flavor than white sugar, but it is not as distinctive as turbinado, brown sugar, or even honey. It's not used over regular sugar because of any flavor difference, but because of its chemical properties in baking. You can absolutely use it, though.