Chances are you're not doing anything wrong.
First year growth is almost all roots; stubby above-ground growth is relatively normal. Most likely your second/third years will be very different.
My Cascade bine only had a handful of tiny cones and got maybe 8-10 feet the first year (last year). This year, it sent up shoots in bush-like quantities and grew into the 18-foot range (I'm not sure how tall, since I had some trellis problems).