As many will tell you, the only way sure way to know if the beer is done is via a hydrometer reading. It's best to test each day for 2-3 days. If the reading is consistent, then its finished and ready to transfer. However, I basically use the 1-2-3 rule every time and have had no problems; but, the hydrometer, again, is the only way to know for sure. Regardless, all in all its a long process from start to finish and there's really no need to rush it. You'll thank yourself later when you don't have bottle bombs to deal with. There are many horror stories on this forum about those.
The FG really depends on the amount of fermentables in your recipe. So its hard to give an accurate possible reading without that info.
As far as racking off a trub, I find a racking cane is best. You can tilt the bucket by putting one side on some books (they make things for this but I can't seem to keep them from slipping out from under by carboys/buckets). Give the trub 15-20 mins to settle. Then when you rack just hold the racking cane/hose slightly above the trub so that it runs clear through the tube. I always leave a bit of beer inside the primary with the trub, as I'd rather do that than have it in my secondary. Regardless, a little bit of trub is natural and it'll settle at the bottom just as it did in the primary. When you bottle you'll rack off into the bottling bucket and leave behind as much of that trub as possible too. All in all, it'll be very clear if you just do your best with it. Don't worry about making it an exact science. It's still great tasting beer!
Most importanly, congrats on making what will most likely be a great beer!!!!