It just so happens in that link you posted it shows what chemicals the glue is resistant to. Amongst other things, it's highly resistant to beer. I don't think you have anything to worry about as long as it was completely cured before use. Many people have dropped stoppers and grommets into wort before, and it almost always turns out fine.
So now I have other questions. Why would you glue the cap to the carboy? That's not very safe, because if the blowoff tube gets clogged (and they can) then it can cause an exploding fermenter. And why, if you noticed the bung had gone into the wort, didn't you just fished it out right there and then. And how is the wort covered now?
And welcome to the forum!