Yes the larger the size, the longer it usually takes to carb and condition. 22's take longet than 12 ouncers.
I would be more concerned with trying to carb in a growler than how long it is going to take...Most growlers are not strong enough to take the pressure generated during the carbonation process...It's a lot different than transporting already carbed beer from a tap.
If you do a search for "growlers" you will find both successes and failures...I personally would not risk it.
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