Yep; you bottled too early.
Open one and drink it. If it is too lively, crack the top of every bottle and re-seal. You will relieve some of the pressure, but since it will still retain most of the CO2 the liquid, you might have to do it again.
You can make beer quickly, but it will taste much better if you give it time.
For future. Leave in Primary for about a week after fermentation is complete. The yeast clean up some undesirable flavors. That should get you to around 2 weeks. You can bottle at that time, but if you leave it longer, more solids and yeast will settle leaving less sediment in the bottle. You can rack to secondary, or leave it right where it is in the primary.
It does depend on the recipe, procedure, ingredients, and yeast, but most people would expect to get at least 70% attenuation (a 1.040 beer down to 1.012), and probably more.