Try and keep 1gal head-space in the fermentor. If you are doing 5 gal batch, use 6 or 6.5 gal bucket/carboy and do not fill above 5gal mark. Blowoff is needed for the first three days for sure, just use it everytime then no real worries. The easier CO2 can get out (read: large diameter tube/blowoff) the less pressure that builds and less violent the fermentation will be generally.
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I actually just had that happen for the first time today when I came home from work. I had a feeling it was going to happen and when it did I freaked out a little bit but then realized that I just needed to clean everything up, sanitize and it would all be ok.
That picture would be a good one to save for every time the blow off tube discussion comes up.
I now have eight gallon buckets to help prevent that. I'm not sure that an eight gallon bucket would have been enough to prevent that though.
A blowoff like that is a right of passage !!!! Congrats on the brew and like everyone has said don't you dare dump that beer as with the co2 pushing out none of the bad guys can get in so let her finish out and drink up.
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That looks like a standard 3 piece airlock. You should be able to attached your siphon hose directly to the column inside that airlock and then run it into a container of sanitizer and water. Voila... blow off hose.
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