1. I would aim for high FG, .010 could be a little dry for the ~10% beer youll have. If you end at .012-.013 dont be discuraged or try and drop it lower.
2. Your initial pitch of yeast should be measured against wort desity (gravity) and volume. Underpitching can cause off flavors in the beggining of fermentation when its most important to have a healthy colony of yeast, pitching in the middle of fermentation will most likely do nothing since the yeast are already past the lag or growth phase and have done there damage on the beer (fermented hot, underpitched). According to Mr malty you should add another 1/3 of a packet, but you might have gotten away with the starter it it was spinning for a couple hours.
3. You can steep the vanilla bean in some vodka to extract more flavor, coffee amount looks good, might want to up it to ~90grams if you want it more than subtle.
4. Brown sugar IS cane sugar mixed with molasses so theres no need to caramalize it.
Good luck!! Looks like a great recipe