For brewhouse efficiency: yes, but only if the recipe lists the efficiency it's based on. Assuming your batch size (volume in fermenter) is the same as the recipe, then you can do:
(your gravity) / (recipe gravity) * recipe efficiency = your efficiency
If the recipe says 5 gallons at OG 1.050 with 70% efficiency, and you get 5 gallons at 1.055, your efficiency is:
55/50 * 70% = 77%
You can do the same for mash efficiency, if the recipe also lists a preboil volume (and you hit it).