I put about a teaspoon in a ziplock bag and crush them with a hammer or something (1 gallon recipe.) Toss it in anywhere from 5 minutes to flameout depending on how long you let your wort steep afterwards. I have heard that toasting them on a pan releases more of the flavors but have not tried this. I have used many spices such as GoP and coriander and have to say, while it has a nice name, Grains of Paradise was nothing spectacular in the brew. Then again, I keep all the spices very low after a went crazy in a pilsner and left it undrinkable for almost 4 months.