Such a simple question should have a simple answer. But the question is not so simple. By "beer," do you mean ale or lager? By "conditioning" do you mean the part of fermentation where the yeast clean up their by products, or do you mean the settling out of the yeast and other haze forming proteins? Are you asking if forced carbonation in the fridge leads to a different result than natural carbonation in the cellar?
If you have an ale in a keg that has been bulk aged for at least 3 weeks already, then the simple answer would be no. It will "condition" faster in the fridge.