I'm only spitballing here, but I would think that even a normal cycle (not sanitize) on a dishwasher would get up close to 140ºF. At that temp, I can't imagine they would "vigorously" carbonate in the short amount of time it took for the water to reach 140ºF. At 120º you should start to degrade the cell walls and at 140º they should start to die off. Maybe not all of them, but enough to shock everybody in the "pool". I supposed anything is possible though.
Did you open one to test it before you put them in the fridge?