What you're proposing is easier said than done. There's a lot involved in making quality wine. You need to know your PH, TA, total SO2, and how to adjust for them in addition to several other factors. It's a rewarding hobby but it takes a lot of practice and study to get a quality product.
As for barrel aging, you can't simply put a wine in a barrel and say you're going to leave it for a year, especially in a small barrel. I have two that I've been using for 2-3 years. One is a 5-gallon and the other's a 7- gallon. You need to begin tasting the wine in a new barrel after a few short weeks because it doesn't take long at all for your wine to get completely overwhelmed by oak. Each successive batch of wine you place in the barrel will require progressively longer exposure time until the barrel is finally "neutral". At this time you can continue getting the benefits of barrel aged wine but you'll just have to use oak additions to get the oak flavor and aroma.