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Old 07-02-2009, 09:04 PM   #1
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Default Black Patent: To Crush or Not To Crush

I'm using some Black Patent for coloring this weekend and I've heard many controdicting things when it comes to this grain. Some say to crush it just like any other grain, some say not to (it'll impart more off flavors when crushed they say). What's everyone's opinion on this?

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Old 07-02-2009, 09:24 PM   #2
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I have always crushed it like any other malt.

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Old 07-02-2009, 09:25 PM   #3
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Yep, it should be crushed. The only grains that don't have to be crushed are grains that are flaked or otherwise processed to get rid of the husk.

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Old 07-02-2009, 09:27 PM   #4
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Seems like you would get more from crushing so you could use less, Dunno, I've never heard this before, I always crush.

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Old 07-02-2009, 09:31 PM   #5
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I always crushed mine too.

Well, for balnt patent I like just give it a stern talking to, then add to the mash

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Old 07-02-2009, 09:36 PM   #6
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I think black malt is a great ingredient when used properly. It only imparts "off" flavors if you use way too much. Just like caramel malts, if you use too much it won't be good.

I crush it and treat it exactly like any other grain.

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Back in Black: The Truth About Black Patent Malt
Author Kristen England
Issue November 2007
Online Date Tuesday, 30 October 2007

Many articles about specialty malts talk about the history of a malt, how it came into being or how three hogsheads of it appeared on a ship’s manifest in 1780 or whatever. That sort of historical information may be interesting in the abstract, but what interests me the most is practical information I can use in my home brewery. With that in mind, I’d like to kick off a series of articles discussing three of the biggest, baddest and darkest grains we brewers use, namely black malt, chocolate malt and roasted barley. In the series, I’ll teach you the functional uses of the malts and present a few commercial clones that highlight the malt in question. First up, the dreaded black malt.

A Black Mark Up Against Its Name
If there ever was a malt equivalent of the crazy uncle that lives under the stairs, black malt (also called black patent malt) would be it. Few people use it, most people don’t think they like it and everyone is afraid of it. Why, you ask? Because all the current literature tells you so. A usual description goes something like this, “Black malt lends a very sharp, acrid, burnt flavor whose harshness is beyond that of both chocolate malt and roasted barley.” Sometimes, it is additionally described as “ashy.” To top it off, many sources advise brewers that it should only be used sparingly. With a sales department like that, I would stay away from this stuff too! Let me tell you, however, the assessment of black malt as a harsh malt that should only be used in small quantities is W-R-O-N-G! When used properly, in the right beer, nothing can replace black malt for what it lends to a beer. Black malt primarily gives a highly roasted flavor, that carries some bitterness and acidity. But it can also show a deep fruity character reminiscent of currants, blackberries or sultanas. It gives deep contrast to a round malty beer by giving it some elbows, without being pushy. Most importantly, even in very small quantities, it provides a drying quality that brightens up the finish of any beer.

How Black Malt is Made
Black malt is made from fully-modified pale malt, containing around 5% moisture. In contrast, some other specialty malts, including crystal malts, are made from “green” (undried) malt. Plump, full-sized kernels — as uniform in size as possible — are selected because smaller kernels would heat up too quickly in the intense roasting process. The malt is then placed in a roasting drum and rewetted. Next it is kilned at 221–233 °C (420–450 °F) for up to four hours. The exact time depends on the size of the batch. David Kuske, Director of Malting Operations at Briess says that they roast 6,000 lbs. (2,700 kg) at a time. During roasting, the malt loses around 10–15% of its original dry weight.

The temperature of the kiln needs to be tightly monitored. If it rises to 250 °C (480 °F), the malt can turn to charcoal and catch fire. As the malt is kilned and develops its dark color, its progress is carefully monitored. Kuske says that one tool used by Briess is a device that crosscuts the malt, so the interior of the grain can be inspected. Pitting in the endosperm is a sign that the roasting has gone too far.

The color of the malt increases as roasting time increases. Interestingly, though, if roasting is extended too far, extractable color can actually decrease. Given the long, intense roasting period, almost all the volatiles are driven off, leading to a malt that — in stark contrast to its reputation — is actually fairly “mellow” compared to other dark roasted grains. When the desired depth of roasting is reached, it is sprayed with water over a period of 10 minutes. The water cools the malt and stops the development of color. Black malt actually has a moisture content (around 6%) higher than most other specialty grains. The moisture content gives the malt some added stability while it quickly cools the malt.

Another interesting fact about black patent malt is that — unlike pale malts — it is nearly sterile. Some commercial breweries, in fact, use black malt (or black malt flour) in their fermenters rather than the mash tun.

The color of the malt varies from around 470 to around 620 °L and it has an extract potential around 1.025. (In other words, a pound of black malt would yield a specific gravity of 1.025 when mashed in a gallon of water.) Most of the extract from the grain is not fermentable.

Some maltsters offer debittered black malt, black malt that has had its husk removed. The intent is to produce a malt with the roast character, but without the bitterness associated with the husk.

Recipe Considerations
In dark beers, black malt can complement other dark malts and grains such as chocolate and roasted barley. It can also be used successfully in conjunction with the darker crystal malts. If you have a dark beer recipe, such as a porter or stout, that uses one dark malt for all of its roast character, substituting a blend of dark grains — including black malt — can lend a note of complexity.

Like all dark grains, black malt is an acidic malt. A mash of black malt only would yield a pH value under 4. In beers that use a substantial amount of it, adding carbonates — either from calcium carbonate (chalk) or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) to your water may be needed to keep the mash in the proper range.

Another fact about dark grains is that the polyphenols (tannins) in their husks are more easily extractable, compared to paler malts. As such, dark grains can lend some astringency to a beer. In most beers, astringency is something brewers strive to avoid. In some beers, however, a little bit of drying astringency can be a positive attribute, as it is in many red wines (or oak-aged brews).

Color Adjustment
Black malt is frequently used to adjust color in pale beers. Schwarzbier and the “dunkel” version of many European Pilsners are colored with black malt. (Black malt flour and liquid color extracts are also used for this purpose). Just one ounce (28 g) in 5 gallons (19 L) of pale beer adds 5–6 SRM, depending on the Lovibond rating of the malt.

Commercial Examples
One usually finds black malt associated with higher gravity porters and stouts, but don’t let that fool you into thinking other styles won’t benefit from a hit of the “black stuff.” In a session-style brown porter, it lends a distinct heavy dark fruit note. When used in large amounts, it can play a big role in emphasizing ripe dark fruits and give a raisiny character to a big American stout. In an old ale, it emphasizes the vinous, port-like character of aged examples. Used in a Scottish 80/-, the drying character brings out the kettle caramelized malt.

....
Brew Your Own: The How-To Homebrew Beer Magazine - Recipes - Back in Black: The Truth About Black Patent Malt
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Old 07-02-2009, 09:36 PM   #7
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To further your knowledge of this wonderful malt, I present four different clone recipes.

Sierra Nevada Stout clone
(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.065 FG = 1.019
IBU = 60 SRM = 40 ABV = 5.8%
Creamy and malty with notes of dark caramel, chocolate, light molasses and ripe plums. An American stout that truly typifies citrusy hops and black malt.

Ingredients

* 9.0 lbs. (4.1 kg) American pale malt
* 3.0 lbs. (1.4 kg) Munich malt (10 °L)
* 1.0 lb. (0.45 kg) American Black Patent malt (500 °L)
* 0.67 lbs. (0.30 kg) American crystal malt (60 °L)
* 14 AAU Magnum hops (60 mins)
o (1.0 oz./28 g of 14% alpha acids)
* 5.8 AAU Cascade hops (10 mins)
o (1.0 oz./28 g of 5.75% alpha acids)
* 2.0 oz. (57 g) Willamette hops (0 min)
* Wyeast 1056 (American Ale), White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Safale US-05 yeast
* 1 cup corn sugar (for priming)


Step by Step
Mash 154 °F (68 °C) for 60 minutes in 16 qts. (15 L) of mash liquor. Boil wort for 60 minutes. Ferment for 7 days at 68 °F
(20 °C). Rack to secondary and condition for 14 days at 68 °F (20 °C).

Sierra Nevada Stout clone
(5 gallons/19 L, partial mash)
OG = 1.065 FG = 1.019 IBU = 60
SRM = 40 ABV = 5.8%

Ingredients

* 0.33 lbs. (0.15 kg) American pale malt
* 3.0 lbs. (1.4 kg) Munich malt (10 °L)
* 1.0 lb. (0.45 kg) American black patent malt (500 °L)
* 0.67 lbs. (0.30 kg) American crystal malt (60 °L)
* 2.0 lbs. (0.91 kg) Briess Light dried malt extract
* 4.0 lbs. (1.8 kg) Briess Light liquid malt extract (late addition)
* 14 AAU Magnum hops (60 mins)
o (1.0 oz./28 g of 14% alpha acids)
* 5.8 AAU Cascade hops (10 mins)
o (1.0 oz./28 g of 5.75% alpha acids)
* 2.0 oz. (57 g) Willamette hops (0 min)
* Wyeast 1056 (American Ale), White Labs WLP001 (California Ale) or Safale US-05 yeast
* 1 cup corn sugar (for priming)


Step by Step
Mash at 154 °F (68 °C) for 60 minutes in 7.5 qts. (7.1 L) of mash liquor. Combine partial mash wort with dried malt extract and enough water to make at least 3.5 gallons (13 L). Boil wort for 60 minutes. Add liquid malt extract with 15 minutes left in boil. Ferment at 68 °F (20 °C). Rack to secondary and condition beer for 14 days at 68 °F (20 °C).

Gale’s Prize Old Ale clone
(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.090 FG = ~1.020
IBU = 53 SRM = 21 ABV = +9.0%

This opens with a deep caramel apple character with notes of plums and sultanas. The tart fruity finish has hints of raisins and a spiciness lent by the rustic hops. One of the best examples of an old ale on the market.

Ingredients

* 14.5 lbs. (6.6 kg) 2-row pale ale malt (Maris Otter)
* 0.33 lbs. (0.15 kg) English black patent malt
* 2.0 lbs. (0.91 kg) Lyle’s Golden Syrup
* 15 AAU Challenger hops
o (60 mins)(2.0 oz./57 g of 7.5% alpha acids)
* 2.6 AAU Fuggles hops (10 min)
o (0.50 oz./14 g of 5.25% alpha acids)
* 2.5 AAU Kent Goldings (10 min)
o (0.50 oz./14 g of 5% alpha acids)
* Wyeast 1099 (Whitbread Ale) or White Labs WLP007 (Dry English Ale) yeast
* 1 cup corn sugar (for priming)

Step by Step
Mash at 154 °F (68 °C) for 60 minutes in 4.5 gallons (17 L) of mash liquor. Boil wort for 60 minutes. Add sugar syrup with 15 minutes left in boil. Ferment at 62 °F (17 °C), about 7 days. Rack to secondary and condition for 14 days at 62 °F (17 °C). This beer should be bottle conditioned at about 2–2.5 volumes of CO2. As it ages it will take on a brandy-like character and dry out considerably.

Gale’s Prize Old Ale clone
(5 gallons/19 L, extract with grains)
OG = 1.090 FG = ~1.020
IBU = 53 SRM = 21 ABV = +9.0%

Ingredients

* 1.67 lbs. (0.76 kg) 2-row pale ale malt (Maris Otter)
* 0.33 lbs. (0.15 kg) English black patent malt
* 2.5 lbs. (1.1 kg) Muntons Light dried malt extract
* 6.6 lbs. (3.0 kg) Muntons Light liquid malt extract (late addition)
* 2.0 lbs. (0.91 kg) Lyle’s Golden Syrup
* 5.6 AAU Challenger hops (60 mins)
o (0.75 oz./21 g of 7.5% alpha acids)
* 2.6 AAU Fuggles hops (10 min)
o (0.50 oz./14 g of 5.25% alpha acids)
* 2.5 AAU Kent Goldings (10 min)
o (0.50 oz./14 g of 5% alpha acids)
* Wyeast 1099 (Whitbread Ale) or White Labs WLP007 (Dry English Ale) yeast
* 1 cup corn sugar (for priming)

Step by Step
Steep grains at 154 °F (68 °C) for 60 minutes in 3.0 quarts (2.8 L) of water. Add dried malt extract and water to make 3 gallons (11 L) of wort. Boil wort for 60 minutes. Add sugar syrup and liquid malt extract with 15 minutes left in boil. Ferment at 62 °F (17 °C), about 7 days. Rack to secondary and condition for 14 days at 62 °F (17 °C). This beer should be bottled conditioned at about 2–2.5 volumes of CO2. As it ages it will take on a brandy-like character.

Broughton Black Douglas clone
(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.053 FG = 1.012
IBU = 30 SRM = 32 ABV = 5.2%

Dark caramelized fruit, bready malt and treacle fill out the flavors of this beer. The finish dries out just enough to highlight the deep malt character. A unique take on the Scottish 80/- style that may even be better with a touch of smoky Scotch whiskey added to it.

Ingredients

* 10 lbs. (4.5 kg) English pale ale malt (Optic)
* 0.75 lbs. (0.34 kg) English black patent malt
* 0.33 lbs. (0.15 kg) English crystal malt (150 °L)
* 5.3 AAU Challenger hops (60 mins)
o (0.75oz./21 g of 7.0% alpha acids)
* 4.5 AAU First Gold hops (20 mins)
o (0.5 oz./14 g of 9.0% alpha acids)
* Wyeast 1728 (Scottish Ale) or White Labs WLP028 (Edinburgh Ale) yeast
* 3⁄4 cup corn sugar (for priming)


Step by Step
Mash at 153 °F (67 °C) for 60 minutes in 3.2 gallons (12 L) of mash liquor. Boil for 180 minutes. Ferment at 62 °F (17 °C). Condition for 14 days at 62 °F (17 °C).


Broughton Black Douglas clone
(5 gallons/19 L, extract with grains)
OG = 1.053 FG = 1.012
IBU = 30 SRM = 32 ABV = 5.2%

Ingredients

* 1.0 lbs. (0.45 kg) English pale ale malt (Optic)
* 0.75 lbs. (0.34 kg) English black patent malt
* 0.33 lbs. (0.15 kg) English crystal malt (150 °L)
* 2.5 lbs. (1.1 kg) Muntons light dried malt extract
* 3.3 lbs. (1.5 kg) Muntons light liquid malt extract
* 5.3 AAU Challenger hops (60 mins)
o (0.75oz./21 g of 7.0% alpha acids)
* 4.5 AAU First Gold hops (20 mins)
o (0.5 oz./14 g of 9.0% alpha acids)
* Wyeast 1728 (Scottish Ale) or White Labs WLP028 (Edinburgh Ale) yeast
* 3⁄4 cup corn sugar (for priming)

Step by Step
Steep grains at 153 °F (67 °C) for 60 minutes in 3.0 quarts (2.8 L) of water. Add dried malt extract and water to make 3.0 gallons (11 L) of wort. Boil wort for 90 minutes. Keep a second pot of boiling water handy and don’t let wort volume drop below 2.5 gallons (9.5 L). Add liquid malt extract with 15 minutes left in boil. Ferment at 62 °F (17 °C), about 7 days. Rack to secondary and condition for 14 days at 62 °F (17 °C).


RCH Old Slug Porter clone
(5 gallons/19 L, all-grain)
OG = 1.043 FG = 1.011
IBU = 22 SRM = 33 ABV = 4.3%

A session-style English brown porter that despite its low gravity has deep flavors of dark chocolate, blackcurrant and tawny port. One of the very best brown porters of which most people have never heard of.

Ingredients

* 7.25 lbs. (3.3 kg) English pale ale malt (Maris Otter)
* 0.67 lbs. (0.30 kg) English black patent malt
* 0.5 lbs. (0.23 kg) English crystal malt (150 °L)
* 1.7 AAU East Kent Goldings hops (60 mins)
o (0.33 oz./9.4 kg of 5% alpha acids)
* 1.7 AAU Fuggles hops (60 mins)
o (0.33 oz./9.4 g of 5.25% alpha acids)
* 1.7 AAU East Kent Goldings hops (20 mins)
o (0.33 oz./9.4 kg of 5% alpha acids)
* 1.7 AAU Fuggles hops (20 mins)
o (0.33 oz./9.4 g of 5.25% alpha acids)
* Lallemand Nottingham ale yeast
* 3⁄4 cup corn sugar (for priming)

Step by Step
Mash at 151 °F (66 °C) for 60 minutes in 9 quarts (~9 L) of mash liquor. Boil for 60 minutes. Ferment at 66 °F (19 °C). Rack to secondary and condition for 7 days at 66 °F (19 °C).


RCH Old Slug Porter clone
(5 gallons/19 L, extract with grains)
OG = 1.043 FG = 1.011
IBU = 22 SRM = 33 ABV = 4.3%

Ingredients

* 13 oz. (0.37 kg) English pale ale malt (Maris Otter)
* 0.67 lbs. (0.30 kg) English black patent malt
* 0.5 lbs. (0.23 kg) English crystal malt (150 °L)
* 1.5 lbs. (0.68 kg) Muntons light dried malt extract
* 3.3 lbs. (1.5 kg) Muntons light liquid malt extract (late addition)
* 1.7 AAU East Kent Goldings hops (60 mins)
o (0.33 oz./9.4 kg of 5% alpha acids)
* 1.7 AAU Fuggles hops (60 mins)
o (0.33 oz./9.4 g of 5.25% alpha acids)
* 1.7 AAU East Kent Goldings hops (20 mins)
o (0.33 oz./9.4 kg of 5% alpha acids)
* 1.7 AAU Fuggles hops (20 mins)
o (0.33 oz./9.4 g of 5.25% alpha acids)
* Lallemand Nottingham ale yeast
* 3⁄4 cup corn sugar (for priming)


Step by Step
Steep grains at 151 °F (66 °C) for 60 minutes in 3.0 quarts (2.8 L) of water. Add dried malt extract and water to make 2.5 gallons (9.5 L) of wort. Boil wort for 60 minutes. Add liquid malt extract with 15 minutes left in boil. Cool wort and transfer to fermenter. Top up to 5 gallons (19 L) and pitch yeast. Ferment at 66 °F (19 °C). Rack to secondary and condition for 14 days at 66 °F (19 °C).

Kristen England is the Continuing Education Director for the Beer Judge Certification Program.
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Old 07-02-2009, 10:19 PM   #8
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Thanks for the fast replies eveyone. I crushed it last time and it worked perfectly, so I'll continue doing it.

M<an, I just noticed the title of the thread....that's dyslexia for you.

Special thanks goes to Boerderij_Kabouter for the info, and to EvilTOJ for the laugh.

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Old 07-02-2009, 10:33 PM   #9
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Originally Posted by imaguitargod View Post
Thanks for the fast replies eveyone. I crushed it last time and it worked perfectly, so I'll continue doing it.

M<an, I just noticed the title of the thread....that's dyslexia for you.

Special thanks goes to Boerderij_Kabouter for the info, and to EvilTOJ for the laugh.
That's funny- I didn't even notice the dyslexia in the title. I guess that shows that I'm dyslexic too, or else don't have very high expectations for you!
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Old 07-03-2009, 09:28 PM   #10
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That's funny- I didn't even notice the dyslexia in the title. I guess that shows that I'm dyslexic too, or else don't have very high expectations for you!
Thanks, Yooper
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