That bucket is HDPE. I haven't had one like that fail me due to chemicals or hot water, and I've used the same kind of chemicals you mention, plus PBW. I doubt I've subjected that kind of bucket to temps above 150°F. I don't know what the temperature limit is for HDPE buckets. Perhaps you exceeded it.
I did have a polycarbonate bucket like this one
fail catastrophically. It just busted open at the bottom when I picked it up off the floor after sitting overnight with a solution of water and PBW in it. The water was hot when I first put it in, but nowhere near the limit of 210°F. Maybe 150°F. It must have been the PBW that did it.